Chapter 8: Operating Systems and Utility Programs

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system software

consists of programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices. serves as the interface between the user, application software, and computer's hardware

operating system

set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources

platform

operating system that a computer uses

booting

process of starting or restarting a computer

cold boot

turning on a computer that has been powered off completely

warm boot

process of using the operating system to restart a computer

kernel

core of an operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains the computer's clock, starts programs, and assigns the computer's resources

memory resident

remains in memory while the computer is running

nonresident

instructions remain on a storage medium until they are needed

BIOS:basic input/output system

firmware that contains the computer's startup instructions

POST:power on self test

tests that make sure the computer hardware is connected properly and operating correctly

registry

consists of several files that contain the system configuration information

boot drive

from which your personal computer boots

boot disk/recovery disk

disk that contains a few system files that will start the computer

sleep mode

saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state

hibernate

saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer

user interface

controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen

graphical user interface

interface where you interact with menus and visual images such as buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands

command line interface

interface where user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions

command language

set of commands entered into the computer

single user/single tasking

operating system that allows only one user to run one program at a time

single user/multitasking

operating system that allows a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time

multiuser

operating system that enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously

multiprocessing

operating system that supports two or more processors running programs at the same time

fault tolerant computer

continues to operate when one of its components fails, ensuring that no data is lost

memory management

optimizes the use of random access memory

virtual memory

when operating system allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM

swap file

area of hard disk used for virtual memory because is swaps data, information and instructions between memory and storage

buffer

segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input device or to an output device

spooling

process that sends documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer

driver

small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device

performance monitor

program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices

server operating system

operating system that organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network

stand alone operating system

complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device

UNIX

multitasking operating system developed by scientists at Bell Laboratories

Linux

popular, multitasking UNIX type operating system, is open source software

embedded operating system

operating system on mobile devices that resides on a ROM chip

utility program

type of a system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs

file manager

utility that performs functions related to file management

search utility

program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify

image viewer

utility that allows users to display, copy and print the contents of a graphics file, such as a photo

uninstaller

utility that removes a program

disk defragmenter

utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer's hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs fun faster

defragmenting

reorganizing a disk so that the files are stored in contiguous sectors

backup utility

allows users to copy, or back up, selected files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium such as another hard disk, optical disc, USB flash drive, or tape

restore utility

reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form

personal firewall

utility that detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions

worm

malware that copies itself repeatedly in memory or over a network, using up system resources and possibly shutting down the system

Trojan horse

malware that hides within or looks like a legitimate program

spyware

program placed on a computer without the user's knowledge and secretly collects information

adware

program that displays an online advertisement

spyware remover

program that detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs

web filtering software

program that restricts access to certain material on the Web

anti-spam programs

filtering program that attempts to remove spam before it reaches your inbox

phishing filter

program that warns or blocks you from potentially fraudulent or suspicious Web sites

pop-up blocker

filtering program that stops pop up ads from displaying on Web pages

file compression utility

shrinks the size of a file

zipped file

compressed file with .zip extension

uncompress

to restore a file to its original form

personal computer maintenance utility

identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems, includes the capability of improving a computer's performance

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