Ancient China, Chapter 4

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From the text book "Social Studies The World"

Loess

Yellowish brown soil that blows in from the dessert

Terraces

Platforms of earth that look like stairs

China

Largest country in Asia and the 3rd largest in the world.civilizations began in 3000 BC

Beijing

China's capital

Huang river

Also called "China's Sorrow" ...had to be controlled with levees to prevent flooding. Name means yellow..carries yellow silt.

Levees

Used to control flooding and water flow.

Guangxi Zhungzu

Southeast region of china near the sea; One of the best climates for farming in China (lots of rain and sun)

Double cropping

Cultivation system where 2 crops are grown on the same land in the same year.

Tibetan Plateau

"The Roof of The World"... a rocky mountainous place & home to the Zhuang (nomads)

Himalayas

Mountain range, home to the highest peak on earth.

Anyang

A town in China where tortoise shells and animal bones were found with writing on them (artifacts) that dated back 4000 yrs ago.

Pictographs

Pictures that represent words (ie. Chinese language)

China's culture

Not the oldest, but one of the most unified and continuous cultures over many centuries

Shang dynasty

The First dynasty, 1760 BC - 1500 BC, during the Xia period.

Bronze age

Period during which tools and weapons were made out of bronze.

Oracle bones

Used during shang dynasty, Made out of tortoise shells and bones, commonly used to predict future.

Zhou dynasty

The longest dynasty (800yrs), began in 1027 BC.

Zhou women

In charge of the silk production during the western Zhou dynasty.

Golden age

What they call the second part of the zhou dynasty or the "Eastern Zhou dynasty"

Shi Huangdi

First emperor under the Qin dynasty. Started great wall, Made gov't more centralized.

Qin

Divided into 36 provinces o r "political divisions"

Qin dynasty

Only lasted 20 years, ending in 206 BC when shi huangi (emperor) died. Period of revolts, etc.

Han dynasty

Period from 206 BC - 220 AD... with Han Gaozu as it's first ruler.

Han Gaozu

A peasant and The first ruler of Han dynasty. Lifted ban on books.

Ancestor

Relative who lived longer ago than a grandparent.

Wu Di

Ruled during Han dynasty, from 141 BC - 87 BC. Made many advancements and changes (built new roads, etc.)

Sima Qian

Wrote the first complete history book on China, including 3000 yrs worth.

Ban Zhao

She continued work of sima Qian and moreso supported education for women.

Civil Service

Practice of using skills & talents to work in the gov't.

Middlemen

People who go between buyers and sellers.

Silk Road

Only connecton with the rest of the world via road, during the second century BC

Confucius

Born in 551 BC, His teachings and idea's greatly influenced Chinese culture and civilization. He taught during a time of conflict.

Confucinism

A way of thinking based on 3 core virtues: a sense of humanity, respect for family, and modesty.

Lu Province

Where Confucius was from

Nobility

High ranking social class

Book of documenst

An interpretation of older Zhou texts by confucius.

Analects

Collection of sayings by Confucius that his students wrote down.

Mandate of heaven

Divine right to govern the good of all people

Mencius

Follower of Confucius and declared that people were good by nature. Started to spread confucinism beginning 350 BC.

Daoism

Belief in finding the "way" of the universe and that people should live in harmony with nature.

Laozi

First great teacher of Daoism.

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