Historians' term for the spoliation of Western natural resources through excessive hunting, logging, mining, and grazing.
A person who, especially in the United States in the 19th century, favors the interests of established inhabitants over those of immigrants.
an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged.
dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor in mill towns. Homes for workers to live in around the mills
(from 16th to 19th centuries) gates set across a road to prevent passage until a toll had been paid
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
2nd Great awakening
Series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on methodism and baptism, stressed philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for protestants. Attracted women, African Americans,and Native Americans
a Church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah. it was a religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from Illinois to Utah
Noah Webster and Horace Mann
Together, wrote Webster's dictionary of the modern english language in 1828.
early advocate of dietary reform in United States most notable for his emphasis on vegetarianism, and the temperance movement, as well as sexual and dietary habits. father of graham crackers
New England teacher and author who advocated for the improved treatment of the mentally ill.
American Temperance Society
organization formed at Boston in 1826; (about a thousand local similar groups sprang up within a few years); implored drinkers to sign the temperance pledge and organized children's clubs known as the "Cold Water Army"; made use of pictures, pamphlets, and lectures
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott. Wrote the "declaration of sentiments and resolutions"
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association
American suffragist who founded the American Women Suffrage Association.
First female physician in the USA. 1849
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
a leader in the temperance and women's suffrage movements, remembered especially for her failed attempt to revolutionize women's clothing through the use of modified trousers under slightly shorter skirts (bloomers)
A utopian settlement in Indiana lasting from 1825 to 1827. It had 1,000 settlers, but a lack of authority caused it to break up.
utopian society established by transcendentalist George Ripley near Boston in 1841; members shared equally in farm work and leisure discussions of literature and art. Author Nathaniel Hawthorne and others become disenchanted with the experiment, and it collapsed after a fire in 1847.
This Perfectionist Utopian movement began in New York by John Noyes. People lived in a commune and shared everything, even marriages which were called "complex marriages"
American religious sect devoted to the teachings of Ann Lee Stanley, prohibited marriage and sexual relationships. Broke down and deteriorated by 1900.
United States ornithologist and artist (born in Haiti) noted for his paintings of birds of America (1785-1851) Orthinologist
Hudson River School
Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820). Transcendentalist.
James Fennimore Cooper
a prolific and popular American writer, He wrote many sea-stories, historical novels and Romantic Novels, "The last of the Mohicans" and "Leatherstocking Tales". Transcendentalist.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support the Mexican War.
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
Louisa May Alcott
Novelist whose tales of family life helped economically support her own struggling transcendentalist family. (Little women)
Reclusive New England poet who wrote about love, death, and immortality
Edger Allen Poe
American writer/poet, wrote "The Raven" and "The Fall of the House of Usher", father of mystery and modern detective stories, relied heavily on emotion.
Novelist and short story writer—works often set in Puritan New England—explored guilt and other dark aspects of humanity
American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels