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American System-

a pre-Civil War set of measures designed to unify the nation and strengthen its economy by means of protective tariffs, a national bank, an such international improvements as the development of a transportation system

Annex -

to incorporate a territory into an existing political unit, such as a state or a nation

Armistice -

a truce, or argument to end an armed conflict

Bank of the United States-

either of the two national banks, funded by the federal government and the private investors, established by congress, the first in 1791 and the second in 1816

Cabinet-

the group of department heads who serve as the president's chief advisors

Embargo-

a government ban on trade with one or more other nations

Excise tax-

a tax on the production, sale, or consumption of goods produced within a country

"Fifty-Four Forty of Fight!"-

A slogan in the 1844 presidential campaigns call for the U.S annexation of the entire Oregon Territory

Forty-niners -

one of the people who migrated to California in search of riches, after gold was discovered there in 1848

Gold Rush-

a movement of many people to a region in which gold has been discovered

Impressment-

the forcible seizures of men for military service

Manifest Destiny-

the 19th-century belief that the United States would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory

Mass Production-

the production of goods in large quantities, made possible by the use of machinery and the division of labor

Midnight Judge-

one of the judges appointed by John Adams in the last hours of his administration

Nationalism-

a devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation

Neutrality -

a refusal to take part in a war between other nations

Nullification-

a state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional

Patronage-

an office holder's power to appoint people- usually those who have him or her get elected- to positions in government

Popular sovereignty-

a system in which the residents vote to decide an issue

Protective tariff-

a tax on imported goods that is intended to protect a nation's business from forgiven competition

Sectionalism-

the placing of the interests on one's own region ahead of the interests of the nation as a whole

Spoils system-

the practice of winning candidates' rewarding their supporters with government jobs

War Hawk-

one of the members of Congress who favored war with Britain in the early years of the 19th century

Whig Party-

the political party formed in 1834 to oppose the policies of Andrew Jackson

Writ of Mandamus-

an order by a court to a public official to perform a ministerial act that the law recognizes as an absolute duty and not a matter for the official's discretion; used only when all other judicial remedies fail

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