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Aryans

migrated from the Caspian Sea/Asian Steppe in 1500 BC; invaded Dravidians

Caste System

Social heirarchy used in Hinduism, made up of Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (Warriors), Vaishyas (traders and landowners), Shudras (Laborers and peasants), and untouchables

Chandragupta

began the Mauryan Empire by killing King of Nanda, claimed throne in 321 BC; battled Selecus from 305-303 BC; unifies India for the first time

Mauryan Empire

began in 321 BC after killing of Nanda king

Arhasastra

book on government and rule written by Chandragupta's teacher Kautilya

Asoka

Chadragupta's grandson; ruled from 269-232 BC; converted to Buddhism and promoted religious tolerace

religious toleration

the acceptance of people who held different religious beliefs

Tamil

language spoken by Tamil people who immigrated in 185 BC

Gupta Empire

India's second empire; built after Chadra Gupta married into a royal family; from AD 320-500; established a patriarchial society

patriarchial

head of household was eldest male

matriarchial

head of household was eldest mother/female

Mahayana

sect who did not hold on to old beliefs; adapted new teachings and beliefs

Theravada

sect who held onto the Buddha's oldest beliefs

Stupas

stone structures that were mounted and built over holy relics

Brahma

Hinduism God of the World

Vishnu

Hinduism preserver

Shiva

Hinduism destroyer of the world

Kalidasa

one of the India's greatest writers; wrote a play called Shakuntala, and emotionally skillfull writings

Silk Roads

Roads used for silk trades of India, Asia, and Rome; Indians acted as middlemen; told to Indians by Asian Nomads

Qin Dynasty

replaced the Zhou Dynasty and emerged from Qin; used legalist ideas; around 3 BC

Shi Huangdi

ruler of Qin Dynasty in 221 BC; defeated invaders and developed autocracy; died in 210 BC

autocracy

government with unlimited power; self ruled

Han Dynasty

ruled China for more than 400 years; divided into 4 periods; ruled by 2 Hans; both ruled for about two centuries

centralized government

central authority controlling the running of a state

Lui Bang

fought Xiang Yu in 202 BC; first emperor of Han Dynasty; lowered taxes and softened punishments; died in 195 BC; general of Xiang Yu

Allah

the god of Islam; concept or belief in one god

Muhammad

prophet of Hinduism who "spoke" to the angel Gabriel; moved from Mecca in 622 BC; 570-632 AD

Islam

"submission to the will of Allah"; spread by Muhammad

Muslim

"one who has submitted"; followers of Islam

Hijrah

moved from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) by Muhammad in 622 AD; attracted followers

Mosque

an Islamic house of worship used for prayer five times a day

Hajj

pilgrimage to Mecca that Muslims should complete at least once in their lifetime unless physically or not financially able

Quran

holy book of Islam written in Arabic; only Arabic considered real words of Allah

Caliph

successor or deputy

Umayyads

family that came to power after Ali; moved capital to Damascus; caused split in Muslim community

Shi'a

group that believed caliph should be a descendent of Muhammad; believed Sunni's were wrong

Sunni

group that did not believe a caliph should be a descendent of Muhammad; followed Muhammad's example; believed Shias were wrong

Sufi

pursued a life of poverty and spirtual devotion; did not live luxurious lives

Abbasids

took control of empire in 750 AD; in 762 moved capital to Baghdad; made a single currency Dinar; murdered remaining Umayyads

Al Andulus

fled to Spain and set up

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