Chapter 20: Foreign Policy (1865-1914)

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William H. Seward

Leading Repulican. Served under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson as secretary of state and achieved more than anyone since the time of John Q. Adams. During Civil War he helped prevent Great Britain and France from entering the war on the South's side.

Napoleon III

Sent French troops to occupy Mexico, but backed down when threatened by the U.S.

Mexico

The French tried to take it over when the U.S. was in Civil War, but the U.S. threatened them so they left.

Alaska Purchase (1867)

It was called "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox" until many years later when Americans found value in the land. Russia was willing to sell this vast territory to Seward of the U.S. In 1876 Congress agreed to purchase it for $7.2 million.

"New Imperialism"

The U.S. intensified it's foreign involvement because it needeed (1) worldwide markets for it's growing industrial and argicultural surpluses and (2) sources of raw materials for manufacturing.

International Darwinism

Darwin's concept of "surrival of the fittest" was applied to competition among nations as well as competition in businesses.

Josiah Strong

A social Darwinist, wrote "Our Country: It's Possible Future and Current Crisis," a racist and religious justification for American expansion. He argued that the Anglo-Saxon people were divinely ordained to dominate mankind--a case of survival of the fittest.

Alfred Thayer Mahan

Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" to argue that the United States needed a strong navy was crucial to the country's amitions of securing foreign markets and becoming a world power.

Pan-American Conference

(1889) was a disappointment to Secretary of State James Blaine. He wanted a trade-reciprocity agreement with Latin American nations that would stimulate the marketing of U.S. goods, but the conference merely created a Pan-American Union to promote commercial and cultural exchanges.

James Blaine

Benjamin Harrison's secretary of state and played an important role in the Pan-American Conference. The charming and popular man was the Republican nominee for president in 1884 who lost to Grover Cleveland. His candidacy was hurt by charges of corruption with the railroads exposed in the Mulligan letters.

Richard Olney

Cleveland's secretary of state.

Venezuela Boundary Dispute

President Cleveland and Richard Olney insisted that Great Britian agree to arbitrate the dispute between Venezuela and Guiana. At first Britian would not but the U.S. argued that it applied to the Monroe Doctrine, so Britian decided that freindship with the U.S. was more important so they agreed.

Cuba

American's made large investments in the largest Caribbean island's sugar. Expansionists had their eye on it for awhile. Spanish misrule, large investments in sugar and the Monroe Doctrine provided justification for U.S. intervention.

Jingoism

An intense form on nationalism calling for an aggressive foreign policy.

Valeriano Weyler

General "Butcher," who was the Spanish governor of Cuba whose harsh reconcentration camp policy provoked outrage in America and steeled Cuban rebels' resolve against him. Americans saw in Cuba's anti-Spanish rebels a reflection of their own revolutionary ancestors' struggle against the British.

Yellow Journalism

Newspapers with their bold and lurid headlines of crimes, diaster, and scandal.

Spanish-American War

A war that was a brief 1898 conflict in which the United States defeated Spanish forces in Cuba and the Philippines and forced Spain to relinquish control over Cuba and cede the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and other territories to the United States.

De Lome Letter

The Spanish minister to the United States in the 1890s wrote in a private letter to a friend, he made several insulting remarks about President McKinley. The letter was published in February 1898 and inflamed American anti-Spanish sentiment, moving the United States and Spain closer to war.

Maine

The United States battleship " USS Maine," sent by President McKinley to Cuba in 1898, was mysteriously blown up in Havana harbor. Popular sentiment in the United States held that the Spanish were responsible, and the incident led to the Spanish-American War. No one knows what actually happened.

Teller Amendment

The United States pledged that it did not intend to annex Cuba and that it would recognize Cuban independence from Spain after the Spanish-American War.

Philippines

Large group of islands that had been under Spanish control ever since the 1500s.

George Dewey

Commander of the navy's Asiatic Squadron, steamed from Hong Kong to Manila as the Spanish-American War began in 1898. He quickly defeated the Spanish fleet and gained control of Manila in the Philippines.

Theodore Roosevelt

President who was the leader of national progressivism at the turn of the twentieth century. He supported regulation of big business, conservation of natural resources, and a "square deal" for ordinary people. He greatly expanded the role and authority of the presidency in the national government.

Rough Riders

Colonel Teddy Roosevelt's volunteer unit in the Cuban theater of the Spanish-American War. They charged up the San Juan heights near Santiago to help capture that city.

Hawaii

Pacific islands that had been settled by American missionaries and entrepreneurs. American settlers aided in overthrow of monarch, Queen Liliuokalani. Became territory of U.S. in 1900 and became 50th state in Union in 1959.

Puerto Rico; Guam

Treaty of Peace in Paris gave U.S. acquisition of these two places. The first is in the Caribbean and the other is in the Pacific.

Philippine Annexation

Congress and the public at large be became sharply divided into imperialists and anti-imperialists.

Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the Filipino rebels who were fighting for independence from Spain when the Spanish-American War began. He helped Commodore Dewey defeat the Spanish at Manila, but then fought U.S. troops in the Philippine Insurrection (1900-1904).

Anti-Imperialist League

Led by William Jennings Bryan rallied opposition to further acts of expansion in the Pacific.

Insular Cases

In a series of cases, federal courts held that, in effect, the Constitution does not follow the flag and that Congress had the power to determine the rights of those who lived in American possessions, in this instance, those gained from the Spanish-American War. The name of the cases derives from the fact that they dealt with island possessions, i.e., territories detached from the U.S. mainland.

Platt Amendment (1901)

Amendment (to the Cuban Constitution) authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect American interests. Cuba pledged not to make foreign treaties that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States at Guantanamo Bay.

John Hay

Secretary of State who issued the turn-of-the-century "Open Door" notes that set forth America's policy in Asia--free trade and the territorial integrity of China. He also negotiated a number of treaties that lead to the construction of the Panama Canal.

Shperes of Influence

They could dominate trade and investment within their sphere (a particular port or region of China) and shut out cometitors.

Open Door Policy

In a series of notes in 1899, Secretary of State John Hay set forth American objectives in China: free trade and recognition of the territorial integrity of China. This marked a significant departure from the United States's tradition of isolationism.

Xenophobia

Hatred and fear of foreigners.

Boxer Rebellion

China tested the United States's new Open Door policy, because it could have provoked European and Japanese retaliation against China that could have led to China's dismemberment (and perhaps exclusion of the United States from trade there).

Big-Stick Policy

Roosevelt's aggressive foreign policy. His motto "speak softly and carry a big stick."

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)

Set aside the 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty between the United States and Great Britain and gave the United States the right to build and fortify an isthmian canal through Central America. The United States agreed to keep the canal open to ships of all nations.

Panama Canal

U.S. needed a canal through Central America to connect Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Hundreds lost lives in the effort.

George Goethals

Chief engineer of Panama Canal.

William Gorgas

Doctor, whose efforts eliminated mosquitoes that spread deadly yellow fever.

Roosevelt Corollary

In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt announced as a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, that the United States had a right to intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American nations should those nations become unstable. Through it, the United States assumed the role of a hemispheric policeman.

Santo Domingo

British stood ready to intervene to make this place pay it's debts, but the U.S. intervened instead.

Russo-Japanese War

Imperialist rivalry between Russia and Japan led to a war between these nations (1904-1905).

Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)

President Theodore Roosevelt mediated the settlement of the Russo-Japanese War. The Japanese were embittered by the settlement, which gave them a smaller amount of territory and financial indemnity than they expected.

Gentlemen's Agreement

In 1906, the Japanese government agreed not to issue passports to Japanese workers intending to migrate to the United States. President Roosevelt reciprocated by getting the San Francisco school board to end its discriminatory segregation of Japanese students.

Great White Fleet

To demonstrate U.S. naval power to Japan and other nations, Roosevelt sent a fleet of battleships on an around-the-world cruise (1907-1909). Made an impressive sight and Japanese government warmly welcomed their arrival.

Root-Takahira Agreement (1908)

Important executive agreement between U.S. and Japan in 1908. Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese Ambassador Takahira exchanged notes pledging (1) Mutual for each nation's Pacific possessions and (2) Support for the Open Door policy in China.

Algeciras Conference (1906)

In Spain, which succeeded in settling a conflict between France and Germany over claims to Morocco.

William Howard Taft

Roosevelt's successor didn't carry big stick. He adopted foreign policy that was mildly expansionist but depended more on investors' dollars than on the navy's battleships.

Dollar Diplomacy

A foreign policy associated with the presidency of William Taft. It reasoned that American economic penetration would bring stability and safety to underdeveloped nations (particularly in Latin America and Asia), and bring profit and power to the United States without the need to for actual U.S. control of the region.

Nicaragua

To protect American investments the U.S. intervened their finanical affairs in 1911 and sent marines when a Civil War broke out.

Henry Cabot Lodge

Massachusetts Republican Senator who was a personal and political enemy of Preident Woodrow Wilson as well as an intense nationalist and partisan, organized the reservationists who opposed U.S. membership in the League of Nations.

Lodge Corollary

In 1912 Senate passed resolution to Monroe Doctrine. It stated that non-European powers (such as Japan) would be excluded from owning territory in Western Hemisphere.

Woodrow Wilson

Campaign for president on 1912, Democrat, called for "New Freedom" in government and promised moral approach to foreign affairs. Opposed imperialism and big stick and dollar-diplomacy policies.

New Freedom

In the 1912 presidential campaign, Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson argued for this contending that the government could best serve the public interest and provide social justice by breaking up the trusts and restoring competition to the economy.

Moral Diplomacy

Wilson had limited success applying high moral standard to foreign relations. Hoped to demonstrate that U.S. respected other nations' rights and would support spread of democracy.

Jones Act (1916)

(1) Granted full territorial status to that country, (2) Guaranteed bill of rights and universial male suffrage to Filipino citizens, and (3) Promised Philippine independence as soon as a stable government was established.

Mexican Civil War

Wilson's moral approach to foreign affairs was severely tested.

Victoriano Huerta

He ruthlessly seized power in Mexico in 1913. President Wilson objected to his murderous methods and refused to extend diplomatic recognition to his government. He abdicated in 1914.

Tampico Incident

In April 1914, some U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, Mexico. President Wilson used the incident to send U.S. troops into northern Mexico. His real intent was to unseat the Huerta government there. After the Niagara Falls Conference, Huerta abdicated and the confrontation ended.

ABC (Argentina, Brazil, Chile) Powers

War between Mexico and U.S. seemed imminent, until South American powers offered to mediate dispute. First dispute in America to be settled through joint-stock mediation.

Pancho Villa

Mexican "bandit" who opposed the Carranza government, raided New Mexico and Texas and killed a number of people in 1916.

Expeditionary Force

Pres. Wilson ordered Gen. John J. Pershing to pursue Pancho Villa into Mexico. They were in nothern Mexico for months without being able to capture Villa. Growing possibility of U.S. entry into World War I caused Wilson to withdraw Pershing's troops.

John J. Pershing

General "Black Jack" was the commander of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), U.S. troops who served in Europe in World War I. He had earlier served in the Spanish-American War, the Philippine insurrection, and had commanded the military excursion into Mexico in 1916.

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