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CHP 9-11

30

Death and Ressurrection of Christ

64

roman Persecution of Christians begins under Nero/ apostles peter and paul martyred

313

Edict of Milan legalizes Christianity

100

all 27 books of N.T. have been written

martyrs

(greek: witness) people who died for Christ's cause

Tertullian

"The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church"

10

number of great persecutions

1st persecution

Nero (64) blamed fire in Rome of the Chrisitan community

Paul & Peter martyred

martyred under Nero's persecution

2nd persecution

Domitian (81-96) demanded to be worshipped

John martyred

martyred under Domitian

catacombs

tunnels underground where Christian would hide, worship and bury their dead.

5 "good emperors"

Trajan, Ignatius, Hadrian & Antonnius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius

Ignatius martyred

under Trajan

Polycarp martyred

under Hadrian and Antonnius Pius

Justin Martyr killed

under Marcus Aurelius

Blandina martyred

girl killed under Marcus Aurelius

5th persecution

Septimius Severus

6th persecution

Maximinus Thrax

7th persecution

Decius: required everyone to obtain a sacrifice certificate; worst of first six

Origen martyred

under Decius

8th persecution

Valerian; worse than 7th

Cyprian of Carthage

martyred under Valerian

9th persecution

Aurelian; started this persecution but was murdered shortly thereafter by own soldiers.

10th and greatest persecution

Diocletian and Maximian

Jupiter incarnate

Diocletian demanded to be worship as this

Galerius

allowed toleration for the Christians

Gave Edict of Milan

constantine I

church fathers

able men raised up by God to expound on Scriptures, defend the faith, and champion the cause of Christ

Apologists

attempted to resonably defend Christian faith

Pupils of John

Ignatius, Polycarp, and Papias

Clement of Rome

writer who was commended by Paul in the N.T.

2 apologists of the early church

Aristides & Justin Martyr

Tatian

wrote Address to the Greeks

Irenaeus

wrote against Gnosticism in his book: Against all heresies

Tertullian

was the against the heresy of Monarchianism

Monarchianism

denied doctrine of Trinity

first person to use the term "trinity"

Tertullian

Origen

most learned man in the early church and wrote the first book of systematic theology

Athanasius

argued the true deity of Christ at the coucil of Nicaea

Jerome

translated the scriptures from Hebrew and Greek to the latin vulgate(common language)

Augustine of Hippo

greatest of all church fathers...wrote two books: city of God and confessions

creed

statement of belief

two major creeds

apostle's creed and nicene creed

arianism

false belief that denied the deity of Christ

constantine's empire

church blended with the government

Theodosius

made Christianity the only legal faith

395

Roman empire divided into East and West/ byzantium renamed constantinople and made capital of Eastern Roman (byzantine) empire

1081-1118

Reign of Alexius Comnensus/ beginning of Crusades

1453

Capture of Constantinople by Ottoman Turks/ end of Byzantine Empire

Justinian I

first emperor of Byzantine Empire; wanted to restore Rome's glory

Belisarius

gifted general of Justinian; made great war conquests

Hagia Sophia

means holy wisdom

Christendom

the portion of the world in which Christianity was the dominant religion

Justinian's greatest acheivement

combined roman law with Biblical principles (Justinian code)

Empress Theodora

wife of Justinian I

Invaded Italy from west

Lombards and Normans

invaded north

Avars, Bulgars, and Russian Slavs

invaded from east

Persians

Emporer Heraclius

defeated Avars and Persians; divided empire into themes

Leo III

saved Constantinople form Arab(muslims) attacks; used "greek fire"

Iconoclastic Controversy

argument whether or not people should worship icons: pictures or sculptures of mary, Jesus, and the saints

787

2nd council of nicaea made icons legal

Basil I

Macedonian man who led Byzantium back to power

Basil II

under this emperor the Byzantium empire was at its greatest height since Justinian the Great

after Basil II died

Byzantium empire fell to ruin

Seljuk Turks

came from central Asia and became fanatical Muslims

1071

Battle of manzikurt; seljuk turks victory

Emperor Alexius Comnensus

wanted to rid 'infidels'; started crusades

1204

Fourth Crusade; crusaders form Venice led French crusaders and sacked Constantinople

1453

ottomans ruled empire

Constantine XI

last byzantine emperor

Mohammed II

led Turks to capture Constantinople on May 29, 1453

Eastern Orthodox Church

developed after the split of the Roman Empire

1054

roman churches officially split

Greek liturgy

senuous ritual service

Orthodox Church

Eastern roman church

orthodox

doctrinely correct

2 byzantine missionaries

cyril & methodius

cyril

apostle to the slavs

methodius

carried E. orthodoxy to bulgars, moravians, and slavs in 9th century

Cyrillic alphabet

developed by cyril, based on Greek alphabet *became the foundation for russian and slavic alphabets

Byzantine church's greatest contribution

the preservation of the Greek New Testament

Byzantine text

basis for the 1611 king james version

sentinel

guard

843

Treaty of Verdun divides Carolingian Empire

919

Henry the Fowler begins Saxon line of German kings

1229

Council of Toulouse forbids possesion of the Bible among laymen.

1305-1378

"Babylonian captivity" of the papacy

Church of Rome

superior of all churches

Irenaeus

declared in 175 that every church must agree with the Church of Rome

deacons

"servant"

bishops

"overseer" or "superintendent"

Dark Ages

period of time that was dark culturally with a lack of progress

pagan influence

caused corruption from within

apostolic succession

all of authority from Christ had been passed down the line to bishops

apostolic authority

the belief that apostles had the same authority as Christ

Petrine theory

Christ --> Peter --> roman bishop

Pope Leo I

defeated Atilla and the Huns and the Vandals by reasoning with them

Pope Gelasius I

issued doctrine of "two swords"

Pope Gregory I

the first medieval pope

Saint Patrick

used shamrock as a representation of the trinity

sacraments

transfer of grace/ rituals to obtain grace

excommunication

cut off from the church/ meant they could not go to heaven

transubstantiation

belief that the bread and juice literally becomes actual body and blood of Christ

relics

artifacts (man made) ordinary object given significance and considered to have special powers

indulgences

certificates sold from the pope to shorten time spent in purgatory

mary

considered her to be a mediator and redeemer

merit

good works

john wycliffe and peter waldo

stood against false teachings of the church

breviary

service and worship book of the church

monasteries

relihious communities isolated from the rest of society

Clovis

first great Frankish military and political leader, inherited the position of tribal king form his father; professed Christianity; baptized on Christmas day with 3,000 of his soldiers

Merovingian kings

"do-nothing" kings

mayor of the palace

ruled kingdom during the reign of the merovingian kings

Charles Martel

(the hammer) saved western europe in 732 from the muslims at the battle of tours

Pepin the short

pope crowned him king and he defeated Lombards for the pope

Donation of Pepin

when pepin gives Lombard's land to pope and it becomes papal states

Charlemagne (charles the great)

empire was the largest since the roman empire; wanted to be a Christian emperor; crowned Charles Augustus and Emperor of the Romans onChristmas day 800

Louis the Pious

charlemagne's son; never reached the glory of his father.

Treaty of Verdun

empire was divided between; Lothair the Elder, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German

Magyars

Scourge of Europe; nomadic people from Asia

Moors

invaded North Africa. (muslim)

Vikings

Norsemen from north who dwelt in Scandinavia and pillaged churches for their wealth.

dukes

began to piece the empire back together

Otto the great

unites Germany, France, and Italy; crowned Emperor of the romans in 962

medieval papacy

papacy was the single most powerful institution in western Europe for 250 years

Hildebrand

became Pope Gregory VII and desired Christendom

lay investiture

controversy between pope Gregory VII and Henry IV about who had the power to appoint church officials

Pope Innocent III

helped the papacy attain the zenith of its power; and he excommunicated King John and place and interdict on his kingdom

Philip the Fair

levyed 50% taxes on the French clergy's annual income.

Pope Boniface VIII

excommunicated Philip the Fair and then was arrested by him.

bull

official decree by the pope

Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy

when Pope Clement V moved the papal court to Avignon, France

Great Schism

the rivalry between popes and cardinals over the election of popes

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