Study Guide: Exam #3

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Photosynthesis is a redox process in which ..

CO2 is reduced, and water is oxidized.

Blue light has more energy than red light. Therefore, blue light ..

has a shorter wavelength than red light.

A spectrophotometer can be used to measure ..

the absorption spectrum of a substance.

Accessory pigments within the chloroplasts are responsible for ..

absorbing photons of different wavelengths of light and passing that energy to P680 or P700.

Noncyclic electron flow along with chemiomosis in the chloroplast results in the production of ..

ATP, NADPH, and O2.

The chlorophyll known as P680 has its electron "holes" filled by electrons from ..

water.

CAM plants avoid photorespiration by ..

fixing CO2 into organic acids during the night; these acids then release CO2 during the day.

Chloroplasts can make carbohydrate in the dark if provided with ..

ATP, NADPH, and CO2.

In C4 plants, the Calvin cycle takes place in ..

Bundle-sheath cells.

How many turns of the Calvin cycle are required to produce one molecule of glucose?

6

In green plants, most of the ATP for synthesis of proteins, cytoplasmic streaming, and other cellular activities comes directly from

oxidative phosphorylation.

6 molecules of G3P formed in the Calvin cycle are used to produce ..

3 molecules of RuBP and 1 G3P.

NADPH and ATP from the light reactions are both needed to reduce ..

3-phosphoglycerate to G3P.

What portion of an illuminated plant cell would you expect to have the lowest pH?

The thykaloid space.

How does cyclic electron flow differ from noncyclic electron flow?

No NADPH and O2 is produced by cyclic electron flow.

What does rubisco do?

Adds CO2 to RuBP in the carbon fixation stage.

What is the final electron acceptors for the electron transport chains in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in cellular respiration?

NADP+ in light reactions. O2 in respiration.

A signal molecule that binds to a plasma-membrane protein functions as a _______.

ligand

What is a G protein?

A protein on the cytoplasmic side of a membrane that becomes activated by a receptor protein.

Signal amplification is most often achieve by ..

an enzyme cascade involving multiple protein kinases.

One of the major differences in the cell division of prokaryotic cells compared to eukaryotic cells is that ..

the chromosomes do not separate along the mitotic spindle in prokaryotic cells.

A plant cell has 12 chromosomes at the end of mitosis. How many chromosomes would it have in the G2 phase of its next cell cycle?

12

The longest part of the cell cycle is ..

interphase.

In animal cells, cytokinesis involves ..

the contraction of the contractile ring of the microfilaments.

Humans have 46 chromosomes. That number of chromosomes will be found in ..

the somatic cells.

Sister chromatids ..

each have their own kinetochore.

Cancer cells exhibit ..

changing levels of MPF concentration, passage through the restriction point, metastasis, and the mitotic phase of the cell cycle.

Cell plate ..

forms at the site of the metaphase plate, fuses with the plasma membrane, cell wall is laid down between its membrane, and forms during telophase in plant cells.

A cell that passes the restriction point in G1 will most likely ..

undergo chromosome duplication.

The rhythmic changes in cyclin concentration in a cell cycle are due to ..

its degradation, which is initiated by active MPF.

In a plant cell, a centrosome functions in the formation of ..

microtubules of the spindle apparatus.

What initiates the separation of the sister chromatids in anaphase?

the cessation of delay signals received from unattached kinetochores.

Cells growing in cell culture that divide and pile up on top of each other are lacking ..

anchorage dependence.

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