the arch bishop of Canterbury who was killed in 1170
pope that forbade a French King from taxing the clergy without papal consent, seized by the french troops who beat him badly
King of France elected in 987 and founding the Capetian dynasty
became the first English king to summon his legislature in 1295, to approve money for his wars with France.
became a king of England in 1154, known for establishing English common law and the jury system; also known for his bitter dispute with the church
pope that permanently kicked out of the Roman Catholic Church an English king in 1205 when the king rejected the pope's nominee for Arc Bishop of Canterbury
after his defeat at Runnymede at the hands of nobles, this English king was forced to sign a document limiting his power in 1215
greatly admired French King that took the throne in 1226, known for his generosity, noble, spirit, and his devotion to justice and chivalry
shrewd-able ruler of France who had become the most powerful in Europe by his death 1229; known for his creation.
french king that battled the Papyses and forced it to move to Rome
William of Normandy
french king that defeated France, the Anglo-saran king of England, king Harold at the battle of Hastings at 1066.
German emperor nicknamed "Red Beard" who attempted to bring the wealthy cities of northern Italy under his control
Rule as Holy Roman Emperor oversaw his empire become more fractured and divided
pope who was admired by many, but hated by some rulers; outlawed the practice of someone outside of the church appointing bishops to their office.
German king who had his expulsion from the church rescinded after asking for forgiveness from the pope.
took the title of king of Germany in 936; named Holy Roman Emperor by the pope in 963 due to his close allegiance to the church in Rome.
Ferdinand & Isabella
King of Argon and Queen of Castillo who helped unite Spain; also oversaw brutal crusade against Jews and Muslims there.
young venetian who traveled to China in 1271; his experiences helped broaden European horizons and open up trade between Europe and China
able Muslim leader who recaptured Jerusalem from the Christians in 1187.
pope who inspired the first crusade with his council of Clermont.
Christine de Pizan
The City of Ladies
uncrowned king of France that allowed Joan of Arc to lead a French army.
pope who saw the papacy moved to Avignon which began a period of a rear turmoil in church
led his followers in Bohemia against abuses committed by the church; burned at the stake by the church as heretic
Oxford professor who attacked church corruption; insisted the bible