specific structure or organized way of making sense of experiences
process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment
part of adaptation in which the external world is interpreted in terms of current schemes
new schemes are created and old ones adjust to produce a better fit with the environment
internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system
provides a special means of adapting their first schemes. Involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby's own motor activity. As the infant tries to repeat the event again and again, a sensorimotor response that originally occurred by chance becomes strengthened into a new scheme.
process whereby two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding
substage of sensorimotor stage; newborn reflexes
substage of sensorimotor stage; Primary circular reactions- simple motor habits centered around the infant's own body- limited to anticipation of events
substage of sensorimotor stage; Secondary circular reactions- actions aimed at repeating interesting effects in the surrounding world- imitation of familiar behaviors
substage of sensorimotor stage; Coordination of secondary circular reactions, Intentional/goal-directed behavior- coordinating schemas deliberately to solve simple problems. Understand object permanence- ability to find a hidden object in the first location in which it is hidden. Imitation of behaviors slightly different from those the infant usually performs. Make a not b error
substage of sensorimotor stage; Tertiary circular reactions. Exploration of the properties of objects by acting on them in novel ways. Imitation of novel behaviors. Ability to search in several locations for a hidden object (accurate A-B search)
substage of sensorimotor stage; Mental representation: internal depictions of objects and events that the mind can manipulate. Sudden solutions to problems. Invisible displacement- ability to find an object that has been removed while out of sight. Deferred imitation- ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present. Make-believe play
the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight
a not b search error
reaching several times for an object at a first hiding place, then see it moved to a second, they still search for it in the first hiding place
video deficit effect
poorer performance after a video than a live demonstration- evident in 2-year-olds.
core knowledge perspective
infants are born with a set of innate knowledge systems or core domains of thought. Each of which permits a ready grasp of new, related information
noticing when a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced.
remembering something without perceptual support
recollections of personally meaningful one-time events from both the recent and the distant past: the day a sibling was born or a move to a new house.
zone of proximal development
range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can accomplish with the help of more skilled partners
language acquisition device
innate system that contains a universal grammar, or set of rules common to all languages, that allows children to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they have learned enough words.
error occurs when young children first learn words, they sometimes apply them too narrowly.
applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate.
two-word uttereance- focus on high-content words, omitting smaller, less important ones
style of early language learning in which toddlers use language mainly to label objects
style of early language in which toddlers use language mainly to talk about their own feelings and needs and those of other people, with an emphasis on social formulas and pronouns.
child directed speech
a form of communication made up of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, clear gestures to support verbal meaning, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts.
actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in deciding how to respond in an uncertain situation
guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride. Involve injury to or enhancement of our sense of self. Appear in the middle of the second year (18-24 months)
the strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
type of child- quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences.
type of child- irregular in daily routines, slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely.
type of child- inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences
goodness of fit model
how temperament and environment can work together to produce favorable outcomes. Involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while simultaneously encouraging more adaptive functioning.
internal working model
set of expectations about the availability of attachment figures, their likelihood of providing support during times of stress, and the self's interaction with those figures. Becomes a vital part of personality, serving as a guide for all future close relationships.
type of attachment-infants use parent as secure base. When separated, they may or may not cry, but if they do, it is because the parent is absent and they prefer her to the stranger. When the parent returns, they actively seek contact, and their crying is reduced immediately.
type of attachment- seem unresponsive to the parent when she is present. When she leaves, they usually are not distressed, and they react to the stranger in much the same way as to the parent. During reunion, they avoid or are slow to greet the parent, and when picked up, they often fail to cling
type of attachment- before separation, seek closeness to the parent and often fail to explore. When parent leaves, they are usually distressed, and on her return they combine clinginess with angry, resistive behavior, struggling when held and sometimes hitting and pushing. Many continue to cry after being picked up and cannot be comforted easily.
type of attachment- greatest insecurity. At reunion, show confuse, contradictory behaviors- for example, looking away while the parent is holding them or approaching the parent with flat, depressed emotion. Most display a dazed facial expression, and a few cry out unexpectedly after having calmed down or display odd, frozen postures.
failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own. Tend to assume that others perceive, think, and feel the same way they do
the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions
the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes
focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features
inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point
the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences
theory of mind
the ability to think about one's own mental state as well as other people's, and form theories about how they think
mathematical concept- order relationships between quantities (e.g., 3 is more than 2)
mathematical concept- the last number in a counting sequence indicates the number of items in the set.
connect new words with underlying concepts after only a brief encounter.
the assumption that words refer to entirely separate (nonoverlapping) categories
observing how words are used in syntax, or the structure of sentences.
once children acquire grammatical markers, they sometimes overextend the rules to words that are exceptions.
child and caregiver attend to same object or event and caregiver comments on what child sees- facilitates language development
age infants learn to coo
age infants learn to babble
age infants say first word
age infants combine two words
make believe play with others- begins by the end of second year
emotions that are universal in humans and other primates and have evolutionary history of promoting survival (happiness, anger, sadness, fear)
Bowlby's ethological theory of attachment
theory of attachment- infant's emotional tie to caregiver is an evolved response that promotes survival. Babies are biologically prepared to establish emotion.
reflexive emotional signals (grasping, smiling, crying) that bring baby in close contact with caregiver
attachment in the making
respond different to caregiver than to stranger- show preference for parents
attachment to the caregiver is evident- separation anxiety exists
formation of a reciprocal relationship
separation protest declines