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information processing

the methods by which we take in, analyze, store, and retrieve material

modal model

The three-stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten

working memory

Second stage of short-term memory; in it attention and conscious effort are brought to bear on material

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

primacy effect

The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.

recency effect

The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence.

free recall

learning procedure in which material that has been learned may be repeated in any order

serial position

remembering things at the beginning and end are easy, but things in the middle are difficult

memory rehearsal

repeating information to oneself to remember it. first strategy to appear in early school years.

incidental learning

Learning without trying to learn, and often without awareness that learning is occurring.

intentional learning

Placing new information into memory in anticipation of being tested on it later.

operation span

An experimental procedure used to measure someone's working memory capacity. In this procedure, participants are asked to memorize one set of items while "operating on" a different task.

articulatory rehearsal loop

one of the low-level assistants hypothesized as part of the working-memory system; this loop draws on sub-vocalized (covert) speech, which serves to create a record in the phonological buffer; materials in this buffer then fade, but they can be refreshed by another cycle of covert speech, with this cycle being initiated by working memory's central executive

visuospatial buffer

one of the low-level assistants used as part of the working memory system; this buffer plays an important role in storing visual or spatial representation, including visual images

goal neglect

relying on the habitual responses even if those responses will not move the person towards his assigned goal in a particular task

perseveration

The tendency to repeat a response inappropriately; often a result of deficits in executive control caused by prefrontal lesions.

maintenance rehearsal

A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it

relational rehearsal

a form of mental processing in which one thinks about the relations, or connections, between ideas; this rehearsal will later guide memory sear

episodic memory

memory of personal experiences

semantic memory

The part of declarative memory that stores general information such as names and facts.

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"

encoding specificity

theory stating that the effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of the cues present when the memory was encoded and when the memory is retrieved

peg-word systems

items are "hung" on a system of already well known "pegs" (one is a bun, two is a shoe)

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