Nutrition Midterm

197 terms by Laura423

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Carbohydrate

a class of nutrients that is a major source of energy for the body

Monosaccharide

simple sugar that is the basic molecule of a carb

Disaccharide

simple sugar comprised of two monosaccharides

Glucose

monosaccharide that is a primary fuel for muscles and other cells; "dextrose" or "blood sugar"

Fructose

monosaccharide in fruits, honey, and certain vegetables; "levulose" or "fruit sugar"

Galactose

monosaccharide that is a component of lactose

Maltose

disaccharide comprised of two glucose molecules; "malt sugar"

Sucrose

disaccharide comprised of a glucose and a fructose molecule; "table sugar"

Lactose

disaccharide comprised of a glucose and a galactose molecule; "milk sugar"

Nutritive Sweetener

sweetener that contributes energy to foods

Added Sugars

sugars and syrups added to foods during processing or preparation

Alternative Sweeteners

substances that sweeten foods while providing few or no kilocalories

Nonnutritive Sweeteners

group of synthetic compounds that are intensely sweet tasting compared to sugar

Complex Carbohydrates (polysaccharides)

compound comprised of ten or more monosaccharides bonded together

Starch

storage polysaccharide in plants

Glycogen

storage polysaccharide in animals

Dietary Fiber

indigestible plant material; most types are polysaccharides

Soluble Fiber

forms of dietary fiber that dissolve or swell in water

Insoluble Fiber

forms of dietary fiber that generally do not dissolve in water

Salivary Amylase

enzyme secreted by salivary glands that begins starch digestion

Pancreatic Amylase

enzyme secreted by pancreas that breaks down starch into maltose molecules

Sucrase

enzyme that splits sucrose molecule

Lactase

enzyme that splits lactose molecule

Insulin

hormone that helps regulate blood glucose levels

Glucagon

hormone that helps regulate blood glucose levels

Glycogenolysis

glycogen breakdown

Lipolysis

fat breakdown

Ketones

chemicals that result from incomplete fat breakdown

Diabetes Mellitus

group of serious chronic diseases characterized by abnormal glucose, fat, and protein metabolism

Hyperglycemia

abnormally high blood glucose level

Glycemic Index (GI); Glycemic Load (GL)

standards that indicate that body's insulin response to a carbohydrate-containing food

Satiety

feeling that enough food has been eaten to delay that next eating episode and/or reduce subsequent food intake

Hypoglycemia

condition that occurs when the blood glucose level is abnormally low.

Epinephrine

hormone produced by the adrenal glands; also called adrenaline

Metabolic Syndrome

condition that increases the risk of type two diabetes and CVD

Syndrome

group of signs and symptoms that occur together and indicate a specific health problem

Lactose Intolerance

inability to digest lactose properly

Diverticula

abnormal, tiny sacks that form in wall of colon

Diet

typical pattern of food choices

Nutrition

scientific study of nutrients, chemicals that are in food that are necessary for life

Nutrients

life-sustaining substances in food.

Chemistry

study of the composition and characteristics of matter and changes that can occur to it

Cell

smallest functioning structural unit in a living organism

Metabolism

Chemical processes that take place in living cells

Essential Nutrient

Nutrient that must be supplied by food

Deficiency Disease

state if health that occurs when a nutrient is missing from the diet

Fiber

group of substances made by plants that humans do not digest but provide some health benefits

Phytochemicals

compounds made by plants made by plants that are not nutrients

Antioxidant

substance that protects other compounds from being damaged or destroyed by certain environmental factors

Dietary Supplements

nutrient preparations; certain hormones; and herbal products that are loosely regulated by the FDA

Risk Factor

personal characteristic that increases a person's chances of developing a disease

Lifestyle

way of living

Obesity

condition characterized by excess body fat

kilocalorie or Calorie

heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius; measure of food magazine

Macronutrients

nutrients needed in gram amounts daily and that provide energy; carbohydrates, proteins and fats

Micronutrients

vitamins and minerals

Empty Calorie

describes food or beverage that is a poor source of micronutrients in relation to its energy value

Nutrient-dense

describes food or beverage that has more vitamins and minerals in relation to its energy value

Energy density

energy value of a food in relation to the food's weight

moderation

obtaining adequate amounts of nutrients while balancing calorie intake with calorie expenditure

Physiological dose

amount of a nutrient that is within the range of safe intake and enables the body to function optimally

Megadose

generally defined as 10 times the recommended amount of a vitamin or mineral

Malnutrition

state of health that occurs when the body is improperly nurished

Hypothesis

possible explanation about an observation that guides scientific research

Anecdotes

personal reports of experiences

Variable

personal characteristic or other factor that changes and can influence an outcome

Epidemiology

study of disease rates among different population groups

Case-control study

type of study in which individuals who have a health condition are compared with individuals who have similar characteristics but do not have the condition

Prospective Study

type of study that follows a group of healthy people over time to determine characteristics associated with the development of diseases

Treatment or Experimental Group

group being studied that receives a treatment

Control group

group being studied that receives a placebo

Retrospective study

type of study that determines factors that may have contributed to the development of disease

Correlation

relationship between variables

Placebo

fake treatment, such as a sham pill, injection, or medical procedure

Placebo effect

response to a placebo

Double-blind study

experimental design in which neither the participants nor the researchers are aware of each participant's assignment

Peer review

expert critical analysis of a research article prior to its publication

Testimonial

personal endorsement of a product

Pseudoscience

presentation of information masquerading as factual and obtained by scientific methods

Quackery

promotion of useless medical treatments

Requirement

smallest amount of a nutrient that maintains a defined level of health

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

various energy and nutrient intake standards for Americans

Food and Nutrient Board

group of nutrition scientists who develop DRIs

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)

amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of 50% of healthy people in a life stage/gender group

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

standards for recommending daily intakes of several nutrients

Adequate Intakes (AIs)

dietary recommendations that assumes a population's average daily nutrient intakes are adequate because no deficiency diseases are present

Tolerable Upper Intake Level (Upper Level or UL)

standard representing the highest average amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to be harmful when consumed daily

Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)

average daily energy intake that meets the needs of a healthy person maintaining his or her weight

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs)

macronutrient intake ranges that are nutritionally adequate and may reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases

Enrichment

addition of iron and certain B vitamins to cereal and grain products

Fortification

addition of nutrients to food

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005

set of general nutrition-related lifestyle recommendations, Dietary Guidelines, published by the USDHHS and USDA

MyPyramid Plan

USDA's interactive Internet menu planning and physical activity guide

Discretionary calorie allowance

daily amount of energy remaining after a person consumes recommended amounts of low-fat or no added-sugar foods from the major food groups

Exchange System

method of classifying foods into numerous lists based on macronutrient composition

Daily Values (DVs)

set of nutrient intake standards developed for labeling purposes

Organic foods

foods produced without the use of antibiotics, hormones, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic improvements, or spoilage-killing radiation

Protons

positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom

Electrons

small negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus of an atom

Element

each type of atom; under ordinary conditions, a substance that cannot be broken down into distinctive components

Minerals

elements that are found in the earth's crust

Chemical bond

attraction that holds atoms together

Molecule

matter that forms when two or more atoms interact and are held together by a chemical bond

Compounds

molecules that contain two or more different elements

Solution

evenly distributed mixture of two compounds

Solvent

primary compound of a solution

Solute

lessor component of a solution

Solubility

describes how easily a substance dissolves in a liquid solvent

Ion

atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge

H+

hydrogen ion chemical formula

Electrolytes

ions that conduct electricity when they are dissolved in a solution

Acids

substances that donate hydrogen atoms

Bases

substances that accept hydrogen atoms

pH

measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution

Chemical reactions

process that changes the atomic arrangements of molecules

Digestion

process by which large ingested molecules are mechanically broken down

Salt

substance that forms when an acid combines with a base

Metabolism

the sum of all chemical reactions occurring in living cells

Enzyme

protein that speed hat rate of a chemical reaction but is not altered during the process

Anatomy

scientific study of cells and other body structures

Physiology

scientific study of the functioning of cells and other body structures

Organelles

structures in cells that perform specialized functions

DNA

molecule that contains coded instructions for synthesizing proteins

Tissues

collection of cells that perform a specific function

Epithelial tissue

cells that line every body surface

Connective tissue

type of cells that hold together, protect, and support organs

Organ

collection of tissues that perform a specific function

Organ system

collection of organs that work together to perform a major function

Homeostasis

relatively constant internal environment in the body that is critical for good health and survival

Arteries

vessels that carry blood away from the heart

Capillaries

smallest blood vessels

Veins

vessels that return blood to the heart

Lymph

fluid in the lymphatic system

Hormones

chemical messengers that convey information to target cells

Absorption

process by which substances are taken up from the GI tract and enter the bloodstream or the lymph

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract

muscular tube that extends from the mouth to the anus

Bioavailability

extent to which the digestive tract absorbs a nutrient and how well the body uses it

Esophagus

tubular structure of the GI tract that connects the pharynx with the stomach

Epiglottis

flap of tissue that folds down over the windpipe to keep food from entering the respiratory system during swallowing

Peristalsis

muscular contractions of the gastrointestinal tract

Gastroesophageal sphincter

section of esophagus next to the stomach that controls the opening to the stomach

Heartburn

backflow of irritating stomach contents into the esophagus

Chyme

mixture of gastric juice and partially digested food

Mucus

fluid that lubricates and protects certain cells

Duodenum

first segment of the small intestine

Jejunum

middle segment of the intestine

Ileum

last segment of the small intestine

lumen

open space within the small and large intestines

Villi (singular villus)

tiny fingerlike projections of the small intestinal lining that participate in digesting and absorbing food

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