Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following except:
The minimum daily output of urine to meet the definition of polyuria is:
a. 0.5 L
b. 1.0 L
c. 1.5 L
d. 2.0 L
e. 3.0 L
What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?
Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of:
a. Diabetes insipidus
b. Acute glomerulonephritis
c. Diabetes mellitus
d. Renal calculus
The countercurrent multiplier system
Loop diuretics reduce body water context by acting on:
a. The feedback loop between the kidney and posterior pituitary gland
b. The countercurrent multiplier system
c. The countercurrent exchanger system
d. Aquaporins of the collecting duct
e. The thirst mechanism and water intake
A hospital patient produces 4 mL. min of urine with a urea concentration of 8mg/mL. Venous blood draw reveals urea concentration of .4 mg/mL. What is the percentage of cleared urea from glomerular filrate?
inulin and creatinine
Which two substances are most useful for determining a patient's glomerular filtration rate?
a. insulin and glucose
b. inulin and creatinine
c. sodium and water
d. albumin and inulin
e. insulin and urea
It is secreted by the renal tubules
Creatinine has a renal clearance of 140 mL/min due to the fact that:
a. it is absorbed by the loop of Henle.
b. it is secreted by the glomerulus.
c. it is absorbed by the renal tubules.
d. it is secreted by the renal tubules.
e. it is produced in the pulmonary tissue.
Which of the following is not found in the ureter?
b. Two layers of smooth muscle
c. Three layers of smoother muscle
d. Transitional epithelium
e. Skeletal muscle
the urinary bladder
A renal calculus can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it would not obstruct:
a. the major calyx
b. the ureter
c. the urethra
d. the urinary bladder
e. the renal pelvis
Which muscle is located in the bladder?
d. corpus spongiosum
e. corpus cavernosum
internal urethral sphincter
Which is not a portion of the urethra?
a. external urethral orifice
b. internal urethral sphincter
c. prostatic urethra
d. membraneous urethra
e. spongy urethra
the elimination of urine
Micturition is another term for:
a. the production of nitrogenous wastes
b. glomerular filtration
c. the countercurrent multiplier process
d. inflammation of the urinary bladder
e. the elimination of urine
Which of the following urinary tract disorders seems most likely to occur in someone who frequently participates in marathon runs?
a. osmotic dieresis
b. renal hypertension
e. renal calculi
Lithotripsy is a medical procedure used to treat
a. acute glomerulonephritis.
b. nephrotic syndrome.
c. renal calculi.
e. prostatic hypertrophy.
What is the most common urinary symptom of diabetes mellitus?
Which of these induces rennin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume?
b. Antidiuretic hormone
c. Parathyroid hormone
e. Angiotensin II
To supply nutrients and oxygen to the renal medulla
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system is
a. To supply salt and urea to the renal medulla
b. To supply nutrients and oxygen to the renal cortex
c. To supply nutrients and oxygen to the renal medulla
d. To remove metabolic wastes from the renal cortex
e. To remove metabolic wastes from the renal medulla
Sodium; the opposite
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures ________ and is based on fluid flowing in _________ direction in two adjacent tubules
a. Potassium; the same
b. Calcium; the opposite
c. Calcium; the same
d. Sodium; the opposite
e. Sodium; the same
Which of the following does not contribute to water conservation?
a. The collecting duct
b. The countercurrent multiplier
c. The countercurrent exchange system
e. The length of the nephrons
The body's water volume is high
The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
a. The body's water volume is high
b. The body's pH is low
c. The output of antidiuretic hormone is high
d. The output of natriuretic peptides is high
e. A person is lost and deprived of drinking water
Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
b. Proximal convoluted tubule
c. Distal convoluted tubule
d. Collecting duct
e. Nephron loop
Secretion of parathyroid hormone
a. A decrease in aldosterone production
b. Secretion of parathyroid hormone
c. Secretion of rennin
d. An increase in blood urea nitrogen
e. Vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles
Proximal convoluted tubules
Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the _______ of all the nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption
a. Proximal convoluted tubules
b. Distal convolutes tubules
c. Loops of Henle
d. Collecting ducts
PCTs are responsible for absorbing all of the following except
b. Sodium chloride
c. Hydrogen ions
Appearance of that solute in the urine
Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
a. Reabsorption of all the solute
b. A renal clearance of zero
c. A net filtration pressure of 1.0
d. Appearance of that solute in the urine
e. Absence of that solute from the urine
Decreased urine volume
Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormones?
a. Decreased urine volume
b. Decreased urine molarity
c. Increased urine volume
d. Increased urine salinity
e. Increased urine acidity
The distal convoluted tubule
Aldosterone acts on
a. The proximal convoluted tubule
b. The medullary portion of the collecting duct
c. The descending limb of the nephron loop
d. The distal convoluted tubule
e. The glomerulus
Preventing sodium loss in the urine
Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means except
a. Increasing glomerular filtration rate
b. Inhibiting rennin and aldosterone secretion
c. Inhibiting the action of ADH on the kidney
d. Inhibiting NaCl reabsorption by the collecting duct
e. Preventing sodium loss in the urine
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the _______ to form angiotensin I
20 mm Hg out
Assuming all other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8 mm Hg
a. 10 mm Hg out
b. 20 mm Hg out
c. 30 mm hg out
d. 40 mm Hg out
e. 50 mm Hg out
In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, _________ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet.
b. Sodium chloride
c. Parathyroid hormone
e. Angiotensin II
The myogenic mechanism
The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as what?
a. Renal autoregulation
b. The myogenic mechanism
c. Tubuloglomerular feedback
d. Sympathetic control
e. The rennin angiotensin aldosterone mechanism
Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
a. Vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole
b. A drop in oncotic pressure
c. Vasodilation of the afferent arteriole
d. Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
e. An increase in osmotic pressure in the glomerular capsule
In a healthy kidney, very little _________ is filtered by the glomerulus
a. Amino acids
The proximal convoluted tubule
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by
a. The renal corpuscle
b. The proximal convoluted tubule
c. The distal convolutes tubule
d. The glomerular capillaries
e. The collecting duct
In the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as
b. Glomerular filtrate
c. Tubular fluid
d. Renal filtrate
e. Medullary filtrate
Which are primarily responsible for maintain the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?
a. Cortical nephrons
b. Juxtamedullary nephrons
c. Collecting ducts
d. Proximal convoluted tubules
e. Distal convoluted tubules
The thin segment of the nephron loop
All of the following are composed of cuboidal epithelium with the exception of
a. The thin segment of the nephron loop
b. The thick segment of the nephron loop
c. The collecting duct
d. The proximal convoluted tubule
e. The distal convoluted tubule
Which of these form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus?
a. Macula densa cells
b. Mesangial cells
The renal corpuscle
Blood plasma is filtered in
a. The renal tubule
b. The renal corpuscle
c. The renal capsule
d. The renal column
e. The renal calyx
interlobular v. → arcuate v. → interlobar v. → renal v.
Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein?
a. interlobular v. → interlobar v. → segmental v. → renal v.
b. arcuate v. → interlobar v. → segmental v. → renal v.
c. interlobar v. → interlobular v. → arcuate v. → renal v.
d. segmental v. → arcuate v. → interlobar v. → renal v.
e. interlobular v. → arcuate v. → interlobar v. → renal v.
The average person has approximately __________ nephrons per kidney
a. 1.2 million
b. 2.4 million
c. 3.6 million
d. 4.8 million
e. 5.6 million
The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferebnt arteriole occurs in the
c. Cortical radiate veins
d. Peritubular capillaries
e. Vasa recta
Segmental a. → interlobar a. → arcuate a. → interlobular a.
Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex?
a. Arcuate a. → interlobar a. → arfferent arteriole → interlobular a.
b. Interlobar a. → interlobular a. → segmental a. → arcuate a.
c. Segmental a. → interlobar a. → arcuate a. → interlobular a.
d. Afferent arteriole → interlobular a. → arcuate a. → interlobar a.
e. Segmental a. → arcuate a. → interlobar a. → interlobular a.
The minor calyx
A renal pyramid voids urine into
a. The minor calyx
b. The major calyx
c. The renal medulla
d. The renal papilla
e. The ureter
One pyramid and the overlying cortex
A single lobe of a kidney is comprised of
a. Two calyces and a renal pelvis
b. One pyramid and the overlying cortex
c. One major calyx and all of its minor calyces
d. A renal medulla and two renal columns
e. One collecting duct and all nephrons that drain into it
The fibrous capsule
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection is known as
a. The perirenal fat capsule
b. The renal fascia
c. The hilum
d. The fibrous capsule
e. The renal medulla
7. A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of midback pain. X rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident, but not to the urinary bladder?
Which of the following is not an organ of the urinary system?
b. Collecting duct
d. Urinary bladder
Human urine can have as much as _______ time the osmolarity of the blood plasma, which is why it is called hypertonic
The release waste into the bloodstream
Which is not a function of the kidneys?
a. They regulate osmolarity of the body fluids
b. They fight osteoporosis by synthesizing vitamin D
c. They help control blood pressure
d. They release waste into the bloodstream
e. They indirectly increase oxyhemoglobin
The cardiovascular system
Which organ system does not excrete waste?
a. The urinary system
b. The cardiovascular system
c. The integumentary system
d. The digestive system
e. The respiratory system
This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous wastes
c. Uric acid
Deaminating amino acids
In life-threatening starvation, the kidneys synthesize glucose by
a. Secreting erythropoietin
b. Secreting rennin
c. Deaminating amino acids
d. Contributing to calcium homeostasis
e. Producing uric acid
The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate
Glomerular capillaries suffer little damage from hypertension because of the protective influence of the afferent arterioles
Cells in the cleft between the afferent and efferent arterioles and among capillaries of the glomerulus are known as mesangial cells
Angiotensin converting enzyme is found only in the kidneys and converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
Glomerular filtration occurs because glomerular oncotic pressure overrides glomerular blood pressure
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism for water conservation was discovered by limiting studies to humans and thus hypothesizing how form determines function
Parathyroid hormone increases phosphate excretion by the proximal convoluted tubule as well as promotes synthesis of calcitriol
Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of ADH, thereby reducing reabsorption by the collecting duct
Diseases that affect the descending corticospinal tracts may limit inhibition f the sacral somatic motor neurons and thus could result in urinary incontinence
Professional horse jockeys may have a greater than average risk of nephroptosis