Psychology 29, 30, 38, 39, & 40

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cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

concept

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

prototype

a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).

algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier -- but also more error-prone -- use of heuristics

heuristic

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms

insight

a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

fixation

the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set

mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

functional bias

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

representativeness heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common

overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments

belief perseverance

clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

framing

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments

language

our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

phoneme

in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

morpheme

in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)

grammar

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

semantics

the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning

syntax

the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

babbling stage

beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

one-word stage

the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words

two-word stage

beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words

aphasia

impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing understanding)

Broca's area

controls language expression-an aread of the frontal, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

Wernicke's area

controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe

linguistic determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think

emotion

a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience

James-Lange theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

Cannon-Bard theory

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion

two-factor theory

Schachter's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal

-physiological arousal
-evolutionary adaptiveness
-brain pathways
-spillover effect

biological influences to emotion

-cognitive labeling
-gender differences

psychological influences on emotion

-expressiveness
-presence of others
-cultural expectations

social-cultural influences on emotion

catharsis

emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges

feel-good, do-good phenomenon

people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

subjective well-being

self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.

adaption-level phenomenon

our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.

relative deprivation

the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

prototype

We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our ______ of a bird.

an algorithm

To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in ever store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of:

functional fixedness

Pablo vainly searches for a screwdriver while failing to recognize that a readily available coin in his pocket would turn the screw. His oversight best illustrates:

the availability heuristic

The easier it is for people to remember an instance in which they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect such an event to recur. This best illustrates the impact of:

cognitive psychology

Professor Pegler's research efforts focus on how the use of heuristics influences the way people assess financial risks. Which specialty area does his research best represent?

an algorithm

A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of:

save time in arriving at solutions to problems

The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to:

framing

College students are more likely to choose a condom that is said to be effective when informed that is has a 95 percents rate than when told it has a 5 percent failure rate. This best illustrates the impact of:

belief perseverance

Professor Chadwick's evaluated a graduate student's research proposal negatively simply because he had heard a rumor about the student's incompetence. When later informed the rumor had been patently false, the professor's assessment of the student's research proposal remained almost as negative as it was originally. This best illustrates:

look for information that is consistent with one's beliefs

Confirmation bias refers to the tendency to:

syntax

A European visitor to the US asked a taxi driver, "Can you please a ride to the airport give me?" This visitor has apparently not yet mastered the ______ of the English language.

during the one-word stage

Babies' first demonstration of productive language occurs:

Chomsky

Which linguistic theorist was most impressed by the underlying similarities of all human language systems?

the association of word sounds with various objects, events, actions, and qualities; children's imitation of the words and grammar modeled by parents and others; the positive reinforcement that adults give children for speaking correctly

Applying the behaviorist viewpoint to language development, B. F. Skinner emphasized that language is acquired through:

it is imitation of adult speech

Not true about babbling?

childhood

Research suggests that humans can most easily master the grammar of a second language during:

Hodi Indians cannot readily think about the past because their language has no past tense for verbs

What does Whorf have as evidence in support of the linguistic determination hypothesis?

neural networks

Mentally simulation an action activates ______ that are also active when performing the action.

mental imagery

The women's basketball team at the University of Tennessee showed improvement in free-throw shooting after practicing:

a process simulation

Introductory psychology students were more likely to achieve a good midterm exam grade if prior to the exam they repeatedly practiced visual imagery that involved:

cognitive appraisals

Whether we feel angry or depressed in response to a low exam grade depends on whether we attribute the poor grade to an unfair test or to our own lack of academic ability. This best illustrates that emotions are influenced by:

nonverbal vocal expressions

People often overestimate the clarity of their intentions in their e-mails because they underestimate the importance of ______ in communication.

openly display their feelings by their facial expressions

Americans are more likely than Japanese to:

William James

Who suggested that we can stimulate the subjective experience of cheerfulness simply by acting as if we are already cheerful?

physically abused

When shown a face with an evenly mixed expression of fear and anger, ______ children were much quicker than other children to see anger.

introverts do better than extraverts and women do better than men

In terms of ability to recognize other's facial expressions of emotion:

physical arousal and a cognitive label

Schachter's two-factor theory emphasizes that emotion involves both:

the James-Lange theory

Which theory suggests that you would not experience intense anger unless you were first aware of your racing heart or other symptoms of physiological arousal?

enhance her swimming performance but disrupt her debate performance

Shondra, an experienced member of her high school swimming team, has just recently joined her high school debate team. A high level of physiological arousal durning team competition is likely to:

left frontal lobe

Exuberant infants and alert, energetic adults are especially likely to show high levels of brain activity in the:

first wait until the anger subsides, then deal with the situation in a civil manner

Expressing anger can be adaptive when you:

principle of relative deprivation

Cindy was happy with her promotion until she found out that Janice, who has the same amount of experience, receives a higher salary. Cindy's feelings are best explained according to the:

valence and arousal

People tend to describe their experienced emotions along with two dimensions of:

people seem to be biologically predisposed to learn some fears more quickly than others

Research on human fear indicates that:

amygdala

Rabbits fail to react with fear to a signal of impending shock if they have suffered damage to part of the brain called the:

increased; remained almost unchanged

Durning the last four decades, the spendable income of Americans (adjusting for inflation) has _______ and their self-reported personal happiness has _______.

cognitive labeling

Researches attempt to understand emotions using biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis. The psychological level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize the importance of:

genetic predispositions

Individual differences in temperament suggest that the experience of fear is influenced by:

several times a week

In studying what makes people angry, James Averill found that most people become angry:

intimacy and personal growth

Research suggests that people generally experience the greatest well-being when they strive for:

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