APUSH Ch. 18 ID's

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Popular Sovereignty

people of territory make their own decision regarding slavery;
expected to use constitutional principles;
General Lewis Cass= "father"

Free Soil Party

antislaveryites of north;
support: wilmot proviso, internal improvements, & free govt. homesteads for settlers;
opposed: extension of slavery into territories

Gold Rush

discovered in CA in 1848;
caused surge of CA population;
most miners unlucky in gold search

Placer Mining

"washing" gold out of surface deposits;
cheap but effective

Underground Railroad

journey taken by runaway slaves ("passengers");
assisted by antislavery men/women ("conductors") to the north;

Harriet Tubman

conductor of underground railroad;
runaway slave;
freed >300 slaves;
called "Moses"

Seventh of March Speech

1850;
given by Daniel Webster;
stated territory gained from Mexico was not physically suitable for slavery, but encouraged compromise from north

Compromise of 1850

suggested by Clay;
signed by Pres. Fillmore;
enacted a more feasible fugitive slave law;
lead to brief era of good feeling;
CA=free, TX=slave, NM & UT= undecided

Fugitive Slave Law

"The Bloodhound Bill"/ "Manstealing Law";
slaves unable to: testify/ have trial;
bribes for whites to keep blacks in slavery;
men who aid blacks are punished;
resulted in more antislaveryites

Election of 1852

Franklin Pierce (Dem.) vs Winfield Scott (Whig);
major issue= compromise of 1850;
whigs divided, Pierce wins;
end of whig party- national and sectional party arise

William Walker

American adventurer;
attempted to control Nicaragua;
tried to seize Baja California;
supported by southerners;
proclaimed himself Pres. of Nicaragua, but overthrown

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

1850;
disallowed UK & US from conrolling waterways

Commodore Matthew Perry

commander of American warship sent to Japan;
persuaded Japan to allow some commercial trade (1854);
begins US/Japan relationship

Ostend Manifesto

3 American ministers (Sp., GB, and FR) meet in Ostend;
secret plan= offer $120 mill. for Cuba, plan to begin war if offer declined;
plan leaked and north is angry

Gadsden Purchase

Purchase from Mexico for $10 mill. for small tract in NM;
Bought buy James Gadsden;
allowed construction of railroad through south in ideal location

Stephen Douglas

"Little Giant";
senator of IL;
Supported: westward expansion, railroad ending in Chicago, and popular sovereignty;
proposed split of Kansas & Nebraska

Kansas-Nebraska Act

proposed by Douglas;
K & N have popular sovereignty;
north unhappy causes much unrest;
repeals Missouri Compromise and ends Fugitive Slave Law

Republican Party

emerged after K-N act;
quickly popular, never "third party";
consisted of those unhappy wt/ K-N act, northerners
Lincoln is republican;

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