Clinical manifestations of hypovolemic shock include all of the following except
An unstable plaque in the coronary arteries can result in which of the following complications?
Which of the following events initiates the process of atherosclerosis?
Endothelial injury and release of cytokines
Factors associated with endothelial injury in atherosclerosis include all of the following except
In the development of primary hypertension, increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity causes
A risk factor that is associated with atherosclerosis and primary hypertension is
Complications of sustained hypertension include which of the following?
All of the above:Retinal damage Stroke Renal disease
Atherosclerosis of the aorta can cause isolated systolic hypertension by
decreasing arterial distensibility
Orthostatic hypotension refers to a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure when an individual
A ruptured cerebral aneurysm often will result in
Clinical manifestations of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower leg include
pain and edema in the affected limb
Individuals with Raynaud disease experience vasospasm in the small arteries of the fingers under which of the following conditions?
The most common cause of coronary artery disease is
Prinzmetal angina is caused by
Why is myocardial ischemia usually reversible within 20 minutes of interruption of coronary blood flow?
Anaerobic metabolism maintains cellular integrity for approximately 20 minutes
Unstable angina is considered a precursor to
When a myocardial infarction occurs, the myocardial cells surrounding the infarct undergo structural and functional changes.Which one of the following changes can be observed in these tissues following a myocardial infarction?
Aortic stenosis results in the incomplete emptying of the
The most common cardiac valve disease in the United States, which tends to be most prevalent in young women, is
mitral valve prolapse
Many valvular stenosis and regurgitation disorders in adults have a common etiology. Which of the following can result in both types of valve dysfunction?
Rheumatic heart disease
Congestive heart failure (CHF) results in which of the following intraventricular hemodynamic changes?
Increased left ventricular preload
Of the following diseases, which is the most common cause of right heart failure?
Left heart failure
Which problem is a pathophysiological consequence common to all shock states?
In shock, how does the body maintain blood glucose levels once available glucose and glycogen stores are used up?
By breaking down protein to fuel gluconeogenesis
Which of the following shock states manifests with tachycardia, vasoconstriction, and movement of large volumes of interstitial fluid to the vascular compartment?
Which of the following shock states is (are) characterized by acute, severe bronchoconstriction?
Clinical manifestations of hypovolemic shock include all of the following except:
Which of the following pathophysiological events causes the severe hypotension observed in neurogenic shock?
Decreased peripheral vascular resistance
Anaphylactic shock manifests with the rapid onset of which set of symptoms?
Dyspnea, hypotension, and urticaria
What is the primary cause of hypotension in early stages of septic shock?
Low levels of which molecule contributes to the pathophysiology of septic shock?
Activated protein C
Secondary MODS is defined as the progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems resulting from:
an uncontrolled inflammatory response.