Module 11: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function

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Which of the following forms of hyperdyslipidemia is associated with the development of the fatty streak in atherosclerosis?

High LDL

Clinical manifestations of hypovolemic shock include all of the following except

pulmonary edema.

An unstable plaque in the coronary arteries can result in which of the following complications?

Myocardial infarction

Which of the following events initiates the process of atherosclerosis?

Endothelial injury and release of cytokines

Factors associated with endothelial injury in atherosclerosis include all of the following except

anemia

Which of the following forms of hyperdyslipidemia is associated with the development of the fatty streak in atherosclerosis?

High LDL

In the development of primary hypertension, increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity causes

peripheral vasoconstriction

A risk factor that is associated with atherosclerosis and primary hypertension is

advanced age

Complications of sustained hypertension include which of the following?

All of the above:Retinal damage Stroke Renal disease

Atherosclerosis of the aorta can cause isolated systolic hypertension by

decreasing arterial distensibility

Orthostatic hypotension refers to a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure when an individual

stands up

A ruptured cerebral aneurysm often will result in

stroke

Clinical manifestations of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower leg include

pain and edema in the affected limb

Individuals with Raynaud disease experience vasospasm in the small arteries of the fingers under which of the following conditions?

Cold exposure

The most common cause of coronary artery disease is

atherosclerosis

Prinzmetal angina is caused by

vasospasm

Why is myocardial ischemia usually reversible within 20 minutes of interruption of coronary blood flow?

Anaerobic metabolism maintains cellular integrity for approximately 20 minutes

Unstable angina is considered a precursor to

myocardial infarction

When a myocardial infarction occurs, the myocardial cells surrounding the infarct undergo structural and functional changes.Which one of the following changes can be observed in these tissues following a myocardial infarction?

Myocardial remodeling

Aortic stenosis results in the incomplete emptying of the

left ventricle

The most common cardiac valve disease in the United States, which tends to be most prevalent in young women, is

mitral valve prolapse

Which of the following forms of hyperdyslipidemia is associated with the development of the fatty streak in atherosclerosis?

High LDL

Many valvular stenosis and regurgitation disorders in adults have a common etiology. Which of the following can result in both types of valve dysfunction?

Rheumatic heart disease

Congestive heart failure (CHF) results in which of the following intraventricular hemodynamic changes?

Increased left ventricular preload

Of the following diseases, which is the most common cause of right heart failure?

Left heart failure

Which problem is a pathophysiological consequence common to all shock states?

Hypoperfusion

In shock, how does the body maintain blood glucose levels once available glucose and glycogen stores are used up?

By breaking down protein to fuel gluconeogenesis

Which of the following shock states manifests with tachycardia, vasoconstriction, and movement of large volumes of interstitial fluid to the vascular compartment?

Hypovolemic

Which of the following shock states is (are) characterized by acute, severe bronchoconstriction?

Anaphylactic

Clinical manifestations of hypovolemic shock include all of the following except:

pulmonary edema.

Which of the following pathophysiological events causes the severe hypotension observed in neurogenic shock?

Decreased peripheral vascular resistance

Anaphylactic shock manifests with the rapid onset of which set of symptoms?

Dyspnea, hypotension, and urticaria

What is the primary cause of hypotension in early stages of septic shock?

Arterial vasodilation

Low levels of which molecule contributes to the pathophysiology of septic shock?

Activated protein C

Secondary MODS is defined as the progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems resulting from:

an uncontrolled inflammatory response.

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