Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Name all the long bones

1. humerus
2. ulna
3. metacarpals
4. femur
5. tibia
6. fibula
7. metatarsals
8. phalanges

Name all the short bones

1. carpals
2. tarsals

Name all the flat bones

1. occipital
2. parietal
3. frontal
4. zygomatic
5. nasal
6. lacrimal
7. ribs
8. sternum
9. scapula

Name all the irregular bones

1. vertebrae
2. sacrum
3. temporal
4. mandible
5. maxilla
6. ethmoid
7. sphenoid
8. pelvic
9. coccyx
10. calcaneus

Name all the seasmoid bones

1. proximal phalanges
2. patella

What makes a flat bone different?

It has two parallel plates of compact bone separated by spongy bone

What makes a seasmoid bone different?

No periosteum, encased in tendons

Humerus

long bone
appendicular

Ulna

long bone
appendicular

metacarpals

long bone
appendicular

femur

long bone
appendicular

tibia

long bone
appendicular

fibula

long bone
appendicular

metatarsals

long bone
apendicular

phalanges

long bone
appendicular

carpals

short bone
appendicular

tarsals

short bone
appendicular

occipital

flat bone
intermembraneous bone
axial

parietal

flat bone
inter membranous bone
axial

frontal

flat bone
inter membranous bone
axial

zygomatic

flat bone

nasal

flat bone
intermembraous bone

lacrimal

flat bone
intermembranous bone

ribs

flat bone
axial - thoracic cage

sternum

flat bone
axial - thoracic cage

scapula

flat bone
appendicular

vertebrae

irregular bone
thoracic vertebrae - axial

sacrum

irregular bone
axial

temporal

irregular bone
intermebranous bone (squamosal region)
axial

mandible

irregular bone
intermembranous bone

maxilla

irregular bone
intermembranous bone

ethmoid

irregular bone

sphenoid

irregular bone

pelvic

irregular bone
appendicular - os coaxe

coccyx

irregular bone

calcaneus

irregular bone

proximal phalanges

seasmoid bone

patella

seasmoid bone
intermembranous bone

Incomplete/Greentstick fracture

not broken into separate fragments

Simple fracture

does not rupture skin

Compound fracture

rupture skin

depressed fracture

forced inward into soft tissue

communited fracture

small bone fragments between two main fragments

avulsion fracture

digit, limb, tuberosity of bone torn off at articulation site

impaction fracture

epiphysis driven into diaphysis

pathological fracture

metastasized cancer makes bones brittle that they break with minimal force

Axial skeleton

1. skull
2. vertebrae
3. sacrum
4. coccyx
5. hyoid bone
6. thoracic cage (sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrae)

Appendicular skeleton

1. clavicle
2. scapula
3. bones of upper and lower extremities
4. os coaxe (pelvic, innominate, hip bones)

Cranium aka Neurocranium contains

1. frontal bone & frontal sinuses
2. parietal bone
3. temporal bones: external auditory meatus, mastoid process - zygomatic process, sternocleidomastoid muscle, styloid process, mandibular fossa, carotid canal, jugular foramen, petrous portion (process)
4. sphenoid bone - lesser wings, greater wings, body - sella turcica, pterygoid process
5. ethmoid bone- cribiform plate, crista galli, perpendicular plate, orbital plate, lateral masses
6. occipital bone - foramen magnum, occipital condyles

Frontal Bone of the Cranium

anterior superior cranium, upper portion of orbits, upper lateral portion of cranium

Frontal Sinuses of the Frontal Bone of the Cranium

at lower forehead, lined by mucus membrane (phonation: sound of voice), connects to nasal cavity

Parietal bone of cranium

top and sides of cranium

Temporal bones of cranium

middle lateral and portion of base of skull

External auditory meatus of the temporal bone of the cranium

tube/canal extends to middle ear

Mastoid process of the temporal bone of the cranium

post to external auditory meatus
attaches sternocleidomastoid muscle
contain sinuses connecting to middle ear (if infected -> meningitis)

Zygomatic process of the temporal bone of the cranium

forms part of the zygomatic arch, attaches masseter muscle
(massification = chew)

Styloid process of the temporal bone of the cranium

connects to hyoid, provide support and articulation with intervening skeletal muscles

Mandibular fossa of the temporal bone of the cranium

articulate with mandibular condyle

Carotid canal of the temporal bone of the cranium

internal carotid artery passes through

jugular foramen of the temporal bone of the cranium

jugular vein passes through

Petrous portion (process) of the temporal bone of the cranium

extends into cranial cavity, houses middle and external ears, internal auditory meatus

components of the temporal bone

1. external auditory meatus
2. mastoid process
3. sternocleidomastoid muscle
4. sinuses
5. zygomatic process
6. styloid process
7. mandibular fossa
8. carotid canal
9. jugular foramen
10. petrous portion (process)

Sphenoid bone of the cranium

1. lesser wings of sphenoid
2. greater wings of sphenoid
3. body
4. Pterygoid process of sphenoid

Lesser wings of sphenoid of the cranium

cranial cavity containing optic foramen (optic nerve from eye to brane)

Greater wings of sphenoid of the cranium

anterior to temporal bones, sides and floor of cranial cavity, roof of orbits
-contains F. Lacerum, F. Ovale, F. Spinosum, F. Rotundum for passage of nerves and blood vessels

Body of sphenoid of the cranium

Sella Turcica "Turkish" saddle; sphenoidal sinus

Pterygoid process of sphenoid of the cranium

extends off the body inferiorly
-attachment of muscles involved with chewing (massification

Ethmoid bone of the cranium

1. cribiform plate
2. crista galli
3. perpendicular plate of ethmoid
4. orbital plate of ethmoid
5. lateral masses

Cribiform plate of ethmoid of the cranium

horizontal plate in cranial cavity; many olfactory foramina that allow for passage of olfactory nerves

Crista galli of ethmoid of the cranium

projects superiorly into canal cavity
-attachment of meninges of brain to floor of cranial cavity

perpendicular plate of ethmoid of the cranium

inferiorly from cribiform plate into nasal cavity; articulates with vomer -> makes the nasal septum

Orbital plate of ethmoid of the cranium

medial posterior wall of the orbit

lateral masses of the ethmoid of the cranium

labryinth positions, ethmoid sinuses, superior and medial nasal conchae turbinate

Occipital bone of the cranium

1. foramen magnum
2. occipital condyles

Foramen magnum of the occipital bone of the cranium

spinal cord passes from cranial cavity into spinal cavity

Occipital condyles of the occipital bone of the cranium

protuberance on either side of the foramen magnum; articulates with the atlas

Splanchnocranium

1. mandible
2. maxilla
3. palatine bones
4. inferior nasal concha
5. vomer
6. zygomatic bone
7. nasal bones
8. lacrimal bone
9. orbital cavity
10. nasal cavity
11. paranasal sinuses

Mandible of the splanchnocranium

1. body
2. alveolar process
3. angle
4. ramus
5. coronoid process
6. condyloid process
7. mandibular condyle

alveolar process of the mandible of the splanchnocranium

tooth sockets

angle of the mandible of the splanchnocranium

body ends, ramus begins

ramus of the mandible of the splanchnocranium

body to coronoid and condyloid processes

coronoid process of the mandible of the splanchnocranium

muscle attachment for chewing (massification)

condyloid process of the mandible of the splanchnocranium

supports mandibular condyle

Mandibular condyle of the splanchnocranium

articulates with the temporal bone at the mandibular fossa; ONLY moveable joint in the skull EXCEPT ear ossicles (associated with hearing - sensory not mechanical movement)

Maxilla - two bones fused goether

contributes to orbit
frontal process
zygomatic process
alveolar process
palatine process
antrum of high more or maxillary sinus

Frontal process of the maxilla of the splanchnocranium

lacrimal groove passageway for nasolacrimal duct (tear duct) to pass from orbit to nasal cavity

Palatine process of the maxilla of the splanchnocranium

2/3 hard palate, roof of oral cavity, floor of nasal cavity

Antrum of high more or maxillary sinus of the maxilla of the splanchnocranium

internal space of the maxillary bone

Palatine bones of the splanchnocranium

"L shaped"
forms 1/3 hard palate posterior
extends superiorly

Inferior nasal concha of the splanchnocranium

laterally off of the maxillary bone; curved; vertical part of palatine bones into nasal cavity

vomer of the splanchnocranium

1. body of sphenoid
2. horizontal plate of palatine
3. palatine process of maxillary
4. perpendicular plate of ethmoid
AND the nasal septum

zygomatic bone of the splanchnocranium

1. frontal process
2. maxillary process
3. temporal procss

nasal bones of the splanchnocranium

sagittal between orbit and at top of opening into nasal cavity; bridge of nose

lacrimal bones of the splanchnocranium

posterior to lacrimal groove/sulcus

orbital cavity of the splanchnocranium

extrinsic eye muscle

nasal cavity of the splanchnocranium

Boundaries: superior/lateral - ethmoid (cribiform, orbital plate, lateral masses); inferior/lateral - maxilla; Floor - palatine process of maxilla, horizontal plate of palatine
Lining: mucous membrane with pseudo stratified ciliated clumnar
Nasal septum: divides nasal cavity : perpendicular plate and vomer

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set