(1765-1815) American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship.
An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged.
They were a group of 15 Boston families who joined to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint-capital ventures. They eventually came to dominate the textile industry, the railroad, insurance, and banking business' in all of Massachusetts. With Pride, the Boston Associates considered their textile mill in Lowell, Massachusetts a showplace factory. The labor there was mostly New England farm girls who were supervised on and off the job and worked from "dawn til' dusk."
Textile factory system of the early 19th century that employed mainly young women [age 15-35] from New England farms to increase efficiency, productivity and profits. These textile mills provided dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor.
Privately built road that charges a toll to those who use it; the money made from the toll was used to pay for the road.
Second Great Awakening
Series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on methodism and baptism, stressed philosophy of salvation through Jesus and good deeds. Attracted women, African Americans,and Native Americans.
Church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah. Religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT, Also known as Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.
An aggressive explotiation of the west led to the introduction of exotic plants and animals into new ecosystems. Settlers often killed species to the point of extinction, and farmed the lands dry. It was hard land to live on, and ecological imperialism was sometimes the only way to survive and make a profit.
People who wanted to limit immigration and preserve the United States for native-born Protestants.
Noah Webster and Horace Mann
Some of the most notable leaders in education reform were Noah Webster and Horace Mann. Noah Webster played a hefty function in education reform. Noah Webster, sometimes called the "Schoolmaster of the Republic," was able to advance school textbooks. Webster spent 20 years laboring on his commonly know dictionary, Webster's Dictionary, which was a magnificent step in modernizing the American linguistics. Horace Mann spent a lot of his time vocalizing the necessity of longer school terms, a more extended set of courses, and higher pay for instructors.
A Connecticut-born Presbyterian minister who won many followers with his advocacy of health regimen emphasizing temperance and vegetarianism; father of bread made from coarsely ground flour (called the graham cracker). He also warned about the evils of excess and luxury.
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane and mentally ill. Beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendent of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; together with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement. She was from a Quaker family and participated in the antislavery movements. In 1860, her efforts payed off; New York law granted women the right to collect and spend their own wages, own property, and assume sole guardian ship of children if widowed.
(1818-1893) American woman suffragist, she was a well-known and accomplished antislavery speaker who supported the women's rights movement. She was the first woman to receive a college degree and the first to keep her maiden name.
The first female doctor in the United States and the first on the UK Medical Register. She was the first openly identified woman to graduate from medical school, a pioneer in educating women in medicine in the United States, and was prominent in the emerging women's rights movement.
Angelina and Sarah Grimke were American Quakers who wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as abolition and women's rights.
An American women's rights and temperance advocate. She presented her views in her own monthly paper, The Lily, which she began publishing in 1849. When Amelia was 22, she married a lawyer by the name of Dexter Bloomer. One of the major causes promoted by Amelia was a change in dress standards for women. She promoted semi-masculine, short skirts with Trousers; an attire known as "bloomers."
American Temperance Society
National organization founded in 1826; members pledged to abstain from drinking alcoholic beverages. Within five years there were 2,220 local chapters in the U.S. with 170,000 members.
A Utopian experiment, put into practice by former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
An experimental community in Indiana that focused on Utopian Socialism (Communism). It was started by Robert Owens but failed due to lack of authority and because the work load was not evenly shared.
Was a perfect untopian communtiy established in 1848 in New York by John Humphrey Noyes. Encouraged free love, birth control, and eugenic selection of parents.
Utopian group that splintered from the Quakers; believed that they and all other churches had grown too interested in this world and were neglectful of their afterlives; went virtually extinct by 1940 because they prohibited marriage and sexual relations.
(1785-1851) United States artist (born in Haiti) noted for his paintings of birds of America. His Birds of American achieved much popularity and called for the Audubon Society for the protection of birds.
Hudson River School
Founded by Thomas Cole, the first coherent school of American art; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River.
(1819-1820) American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book. First to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer.
James Fennimore Cooper
Wrote numerous sea-stories as well as the historical romances known as the Leather stocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, which many people consider his masterpiece.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement. (Transcendentalism is the belief in an ideal spirituality that "transcends" the physical and empirical; realized only through the individual's intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions)
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support the Mexican-American War.
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
Louisa May Alcott
(1868-1869) American writer and reformer best known for her largely autobiographical novel, Little Women.
(1830-1886) United States poet noted for her mystical and unrhymed poems. Wrote "Wild Nights--Wild Nights!," "I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died," and "Because I Could Not Stop For Death."
Edgar Allen Poe
(1809-1849). Orphaned at young age. Was an American poet, short-story writer, editor and literary critic. Considered part of the American Romantic Movement and best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre. Failing at suicide, began drinking. Died in Baltimore shortly after being found drunk in a gutter.
Famous novelist that was originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. His novel, "The Scarlet Letter," shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans.
American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels.