Different cultures regard different practices as morally right. We cannot say that any culture is more morally right than others. In this way moral progress is in doubt.
Welfare, rights and justice. Liberal morals cannot easily understand non-liberal approaches to things.
Non-Liberal (Conservative) Morality
Ingroup/Loyalty, Authority/Respect, Purity/Sanctity
Morality is all about feelings, e.g. when you say you disagree with slavery you feel negatively towards it. (morality is a report of feelings)
You are not describing your feelings, you are 'expressing' them. E.g. 'slavery is wrong' is more like 'oh crap' than 'I feel negatively about slavery'
Divine Command Theory
Without no God there is no morality. God is the source of moral law.
The Euthryphro Dilemma:
Plato: Is something wrong because God says so, or does God say it is wrong because it is wrong independently? Are God's moral values an expression of what he believes? Therefore he could have said "Rape is good", and that would be moral.
Morality requires us to be selfish. It is morally right to look after your own interests.
Acts purely selfishly, goes on any impulse it gets. Lack of self control for immediate self gratification. Incompatible with morality.
Works to maximize your own self interest over the course of your life. Not immediately incompatible with morality.
Maximize happiness as much as possible. Unhappiness is the only thing that is intrinsically bad.
Basis of Moral Duty
- What we are owed by others is captured in our rights against them. We have a duty to respect others rights also.