Biology Vocab (3)

19 terms by Brennabigs 

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Diploid

(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number

Gamete

a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes (ex. egg, sperm)

Gametogenesis

the development and maturation of sex cells through meiosis

Somatic

of the body

2N

abbreviation for diploid cell

Meiosis

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

Zygote

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

Spermatogenesis

the production of sperm cells

Oogenesis

the production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum

Meristematic tissue

Plant tissue found only in the tips of shoots and roots; responsible for plant growth. (divides)

Xylem

Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.

Phloem

vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis

exocytosis

process by which vesicles release their contents outside the cell

endocytosis

process by which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane

phagocytosis

the process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food

pinocytosis

process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment

hypotonic solution

in cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than the concentration inside the cell; causes a cell to swell and possibly burst as water enters the cell

hypertonic solution

in cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell; causes a cell to shrink as water leaves the cell

isotonic solution

a solution that produces no change in cell volume because of osmosis

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