Bio 10.2 The Process of Cell Division

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chromosome

packages of DNA that contain genetic information

prokaryotic chromosome

single, circular DNA chromosome

eukaryotic chromosome

-eukaryotes contain multiple chromosomes
-DNA wrapped around proteins (histones)
-DNA and histones form beadlike structures (nucleosomes)

chromatin

complex of chromosome and protein

cell cycle

cell grows, prepares for cell division and divides

prokaryotic cell cycle

binary fission:
-growth
-DNA replication
-cell divition

eukaryotic cell cycle

interphase and M phase

interphase

period of growth between cell divisions
-G1 phase
-S phase
-G2 phase

G1 phase

cell growth

S phase

DNA replication

G2 phase

cell prepares for cell division

mitosis

division of nucleus
-prophase
-metaphase
-anaphase
-telophase

prophase

-genetic material inside nucleus condenses
-spindles start to form

centromere

duplicated strands of DNA molecule attached here

(sister) chromatid

each DNA strand in a duplicated chromosome

centrioles

-spindle fibers extend from this organelle
-only found in animal cells

metaphase

-centromeres line up across center of cell
-spindle fibers connect to the centromere

anaphase

chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite sides of the cell

telophase

-chromosomes spread out into chromatin
-nuclear envelopes reform

cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm

cytokinesis in animal cells

cell membrane drawn inward to create two cells

cytokinesis in plant cells

cell plate forms halfway between divided nuclei

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