Sport Psychology Exam 3

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Competition

A social process that occurs when rewards are given to people for how their performance compares with the performances of others during the same task or when participating in the same event

Cooperation

A social process through which performance is evaluated and rewarded in terms of the collective achievement of a group of people working together to reach a particular goal

Competition Process (Marten) 4 Stages

1) Objective competitive situation
2) Subjective competitive situation
3) Response
4) Consequences

Deutsch's Puzzles

College students were required to solve puzzle problems during a 5-week span using both competitive and cooperative instructions. Students in the competitive group were self-centered, directed their efforts at beating others, had closed communication, and exhibited group conflict/mistrust. Cooperative - communicated openly, shared information, developed friendships, and actually solved more puzzles than the competitive group. Teams work better together when they have a common goal and when reaching that goal produces similar rewards for all participants.

Prisoner's Dilemma

Found that competitive individuals will draw cooperative ones into competition

Sherif and Sherif

Competitive sport can help athletes learn to work together to strive for mutual and reduce the overemphasis and pressure on winning. This not only creates a positive social environment, but can also improve performance. Social context and emphasis on competition play are critical roles in determining whether competition is beneficial and productive. (Study of 12 year old boys - introduced conflict and then resolved it through cooperation - 2 teams work together because they are forced to, to achieve superordinate goals)

Component Structure of Games

-competitive means - competitive ends (king of the hill/ 100-yd dash)
-cooperative means - competitive ends ( Soccer/basketball)
-Individuals means - individual ends (calisthenics, cross country skiing)
-Cooperative means - individual ends ( helping each other individually improve)
-Cooperative means - cooperative ends (keeping a volleyball from hitting the ground)

Characteristics of Cooperative Games

-Maximize participation
-Maximize opportunities to learn sport and movement skills
-Don't keep score
-Maximize opportunities for success
-Give positive feedback
-Provide opportunities for youngsters to play different positions

Guidelines for Competition and Cooperation

-Individualize instruction
-Blend competitive and cooperative elements
-Use superordinate goals to get the groups together if there is rivalry
-Provide positive feedback regardless of outcomes of competition
-Stress cooperation - trust and open communication
-Provide opportunities for learning sport and practicing the skills in competition

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

How rewards are perceived is critical in determining whether intrinsic motivation increases/decreases

Aspects of Cognitive Evaluative Theory

-Controlling aspects: Rewards perceived to control a person decrease intrinsic motivation whereas rewards that contribute to an internal locus of causality increase intrinsic motivation
-Informational aspects: Rewards that provide information and positive feedback about competence increase IM, whereas rewards that suggest the person is not competent decrease IM
-Functional significance of the event: How a reward affects intrinsic motivation depends on whether the recipient perceives it to be more controlling or more informational

Lepper and Greene

used nursery school children as participants and selected an activity that was intrinsically motivating for these children - drawing with felt pens - when children were offered a reward for drawing, their intrinsic motivation decreased

Ryan Studies

Players on scholarship enjoy their sport less than those on scholarship - decreased IM on scholarship (Football) - different for wrestlers - explained by controlling/informational functions of scholarships. Important for wrestlers bc they don't normally get scholarships so this means they are really good (increasing informational)

Increasing Intrinsic Motivation

-Provide for successful experiences
-Give rewards contingent on performance
-Use verbal and nonverbal praise
-Vary content and sequence of practice drills
-Involve participants in decisions
-Set realistic performance goals

Principles of Reinforcement

-If doing something results in a good consequence, people will tend to repeat the behavior to receive additional positive consequences
-If doing something results in an unpleasent consequence, people will tend to try not to repeat the behavior
-Why reinforcement is complex - People react differently to the same reinforcement, People are unable to repeat desirable behaviors, People receive different reinforcers in different situations

Principles/guidelines of positive reinforcement

-Choose effective reinforcers
-Choose timing or schedule of reinforcement (early learning - continuous and immediate reinforcement, learned skill - intermittent and immediate reinforcement)
-Choose and reward appropriate behaviors
-Reinforce successful approximations of difficult behaviors (shaping)
-Reward both performance and outcome
-Reward effort

Flow definition

a holistic, intrinsically motivating sensation that people feel when they are totally involved in an activity or are on automatic pilot

Achieving Flow

be motivated, stay in the present, physical readiness, optimal arousal, planning/pregame routines, optimal playing conditions, positive mental attitude, positive team, things just feel right

Disrupting flow

nonoptimal preparation, nonoptimal environment, lack of confidence, inappropriate focus, negative team interactions, performance going poorly, doubting self

Characteristics of Flow

balance of challenges/skills, complete absorption, clear goals, merging of action and awareness, total concentration, loss of self-consciousness, sense of control, no goals/rewards external, transformation of time, effortless movement

Guidelines for using Punishment

-Be consistent (same punishment for everyone)
-Punish the behavior, not the person
-Allow athlete's input
-Do not use physical activity as punishment
-Beware punishment isn't seen as a reward (attention)
-Do not yell/berate
-Do not punish while playing
-Do not embarrass individuals in front of others
-Use sparingly

Theories of Group Development

-Linear Perspective - Forming, Storming (conflict), Norming, Performing
-Cyclical Perspective - life cycle - all groups eventually end (10-15wks)
-Pendular Perspective - (shifts in interpersonal relationships) - orientation, differentiation, resolution, differentiation, termination

Group Structure (Roles)

-Group roles - involve behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position
-Formal roles - dictated by the nature/structure of the organization
-Informal roles - evolve from the groups dynamics or interactions among group members
-Role clarity and role acceptance are critical for team success

Social Support

An exchange of resources between at least 2 people perceived by the provider and the recipient as intended to enhance the well-being of the recipient -7 types: listening, emotional, emotional-challenge, reality-confirmation, task-appreciation, task-challenge, and personal-assistance

Steiner's Model

-While individual ability is important, the individual abilities of team members alone are not good predictors of how a team will perform
-Actual productivity = potential productivity - losses due to faulty group
-2 types of losses - motivation and coordination losses

Ringelmann Effect

Phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the group increases

Social Loafing

When individuals within a group or team put forth less than 100% effort due to loss of motivation

Increasing Social Loafing

Low personal involvement, task has low meaningfulness, no comparison against group standards, group does not know each other well, teammates are high ability

Decreasing Social Loafing

emphasize importance of individual pride, increase identifiability of performances, determine in which situations it is occurring, conduct individual meetings, appreciate each team member's responsibilities, divide the team into smaller units

Cohesion

-Definition: A dynamic process reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs
-Task cohesion - The degree to which group members work together to achieve common goals/objectives
-Social cohesion - The interpersonal attractions among group members

Measurement of Cohesion

-Using questionnaires - Group environment questionnaire (GEQ) - focuses on how attractive the group is to the individual members and how the members perceive the group

Carron Model of Cohesion

-Four major antecedents/factors affecting the development of cohesion in sport and exercise settings: environmental, personal, leadership, and team factors

Cohesion-performance relationship

-Cohesion is positively related to performance (circular) - depends on types of measures and task demands
-Task and social cohesion are associated with increased performance
-Recent research has shown task demands do not influence the cohesion-performance relationship

Factors associated with cohesion

-Team satisfaction
-Conformity (adjust/adapt to attitudes/behaviors of the group)
-Adherence (attend and be on time)
-Social Support
-Stability (higher in cohesion can resist disruption better)
-Group goals

Strategies for enhancing cohesion

-Sport setting: leadership, distinctiveness, and sacrifice - team-building exercises, clear and meaningful roles, team goals, communication, and personal sacrifice are related to increased cohesion
-Exercise setting - classes with feelings of high group cohesion have fewer dropouts and late arrivals than do classes low in cohesion

Guidelines for building team cohesion

-MAPS approach - Mission Assessment Plan and Systematic evaluation
-Increase distinctiveness, Individual positions, Group norms, Individual sacrifices, and interaction/communication

Approaches to studying leadership

-Trait approach - personality determines leadership - bad
-Behavioral approach - examines universal behaviors of effective leaders
-Situational approach - effective leadership depends on situation
-Interactional approach - personal/situational factors need to be considered in order to understand effective leadership - no one set of characteristics ensures successful leaders, effective leader styles or behaviors fit the specific situation, leadership styles can be changed.

How leaders are chosen

-Appointed/prescribed - individuals appointed by some authority to a leadership position (head athletic trainer)
-Emergent leaders - individuals who emerge from a group and take charge (captain of an intramural team/ Ex class leader)

Behavioral Guidelines for coaches

-Provide immediate reinforcement for positive effort
-Correct immediately after mistakes
-Don't punish mistakes
-Don't feedback in a hostile way
-Establish clear expectations
-Do not constantly nag or threaten
-Encourage
-Provide technical instruction

Multimodal model of leadership

-Leader effectiveness in sport can vary depending on the characteristics of the athletes and constraints of the situation
-Optimal performance and satisfaction are achieved when a leader's required, preferred, and actual behaviors are consistent

Four components of effective leadership

-Leaders qualities
-Situational factors
-Leadership styles
-Follower's qualities

Purposes of communication

-Contributes to performance enhancement
-Promotes personal growth of participant
-Communication is used to - persuade, evaluate, inform, motivate, and assist in problem solving
-2 parts of any communication - CONTENT - what is said, RELATIONAL INFORMATION - how we feel about it

Types of communication

-Verbal (2 people in a meaningful exchange)
-Nonverbal (body language 50-70% of communication)
-Intrapersonal communication - self-talk

Breakdowns in communication

-Sender Failure (ambiguous, inconsistent, poorly transmitted)
-Receiver Failures (Misinterpretation, problem with both parties)

Guidelines for sending effective messages

-Be direct
-Own your message
-Be specific and complete
-State your needs and feelings clearly
-Separate fact from fiction
-Focus on one thing at a time
-Avoid hidden agendas
-Be redundant
-Don't send mixed messages (sarcasm)
-Use language the receiver understands
-Ask for feedback to ensure proper interpretation

Types of listening behaviors

-Active listening - paraphrase what speaker has said - nodding
-Supportive listening - communicate that you acknowledge/accepted the message - confirm even if you don't agree - verbal and nonverbal
-Aware listening - Be flexible - different situations require different strategies - be alert for barriers/breakdowns

Initiating Confrontation

-Confront when you are in control and can express feelings constructively
-Convey the value of your relationship
-Go slowly
-Try to understand the other person's position
-Listen
-Don't communicate the solution
-Don't stop communicating
-Don't use put downs
-Don't rely on nonverbal hints

Sandwich approach to delivering criticism

-Positive statement, future-oriented instruction, follow with compliment

Empathy and effective communication

-Empathy - the ability of a person to perceive, recognize, and understand the feelings, behaviors, intentions, and attitudes of others.
-Empathy increases with exposure to each athlete - individual sport coaches were more accurate when talking about their relationship with their athlete than group coaches

Introjected Regulation

The individual is motivated by internal prods and pressures; however the behavior is still not considered self-determined because it is regulated by external contingencies

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