Designing remedies for overcoming racism and sexism by taking race and sex into account
any persons who are not U.S. citizens
Regents of UC v Bakke
A Supreme Court ruling stating that a college may not use an explicit numerical quota in admitting minorities but could "take race into account", The Court held that while affirmative action systems are constitutional, a quota system based on race is unconstitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education
A Supreme Court descision declaring segregated inherently unequal
Device used, and upheld by the Court to address concerns about protestors at abortion clinics
The rights of citizens to vote, recieve equal treatment before the law, and share benefits of public facilities.
Helping disadvantaged people catch up, usually by giving them extra eduacation, training, or services.
de facto segregation
segregation that exists by that was not created by law
de jure segregation
segregation created by law
equality of results
distributing desired things equally to the races
freedom of choice
a school integration plan mandating no particular racial balence
Griswold v. Connecticut
Landmark case in which the Court first founf a "right to privacy in the Const.
Legislation that barred the use of the federal funds for nearly any abortion.
Martin Luther King Jr.
An early nonvolent leader in black civil right
a black interest group active primarily in the courts
nonviolent civil disobedience
a philosophy of peaceful violation laws considered unjust and accepting punishment for the violation
a leading feminist organization
Plessy v. Fergeson
a supreme court decision upholding state enforced racial segregation
giving minorities preference in hiring, promotions, college admissions, and contracts
the standard by which the court judges gender-based classifications
post-civil war era when southern laws protected blacks' freedoms
Reed v. Reed
Landmark case declaring gender discrimination a violation under the Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and asserting the reasonableness standard for such discrimination
the use of race or sex to giver preferential treatment to blacks or women
Roe v. Wade
a ruling that declared all state laws prohibiting abortion unconstitutional
Rostker v. Goldberg
a ruling that held the Congress may draft men but not women
the standard under which the court once upheld racial segregation
the standard by which the Supreme Court judges classifications based on race; they must have a compelling public purpose
A legal distinction that the Supreme Court scrutinizes especially closely
equality of opportunity
offering the races an equal chance at desired things