Chapter 23: The Digestive System

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Pearson Human Anatomy & Physiology, Marieb/Hoehn

In order to prevent self-digestion of the pancreas activation of pancreatic proteases occurs in the

Duodenum

During deglutition, the bolus passes into the stomach from the esophagus through the

gastroesophageal sphincter.

During the intestinal phase of gastric regulation,

the stomach is initially stimulated, and later inhibited.

Protective collections of lymphocytes and macrophages occur in

the Peyer's patches.

Starch is chemically digested by enzymes produced in the

salivary glands and pancreas.

Swallowing reflexes begin when receptors are stimulated by food in this structure.

Pharynx

Blood flows into the liver via the ___________ and ___________, while blood exits the liver via the ______________.

Hepatic portal vein; hepatic artery; hepatic vein

The function of a lacteal is to

absorb lipids.

The major outcome that occurs through mechanical digestive activities is

an increase in the surface area of food by breaking it into smaller fragments.

What is the main organic molecule digested in the stomach?

Proteins

The propulsive function that occurs in the esophagus is called

peristalsis.

The stimulus for the release of pancreatic enzymes is

The presence of chyme containing proteins and fats in the duodenum.

This structure is a modified portion of the small intestine mucosa that greatly increases the absorptive surface area.

Villus

Which activity below is a mixing action that exposes materials to secretions and absorptive surfaces?

Segmentation

Which is a function of the large intestine?

Absorption of water, ions, and some vitamins

Which of the following is a characteristic of the large intestine?

It contains a large number of bacteria.

Which regulatory chemical stimulates gastric gland activity and motility?

Gastrin

Which sequence below represents the correct layering of the wall of the GI tract beginning with the layer next to the lumen?

Mucosa - submucosa - muscularis externa - serosa

Which substance or occurrence would directly decrease gastric activity?

Distention of duodenum

Which of the following is NOT part of the digestive tract?

Salivary glands

The ampulla of Vater (a.k.a. hepatopancreatic ampulla) is formed from the union of the

common bile duct and pancreatic duct

What would be the effect of stripping the small intestines of their villi?

Decreased surface area for absorption would cause weight loss to occur.

Which of the following products does the stomach produce?

HCl and intrinsic factor

The final product of carbohydrate digestion is

monosaccharides.

Which of the following cells produce HCl?

Parietal cells

Which of the following cells produce pepsinogen?

Chief cells

Most absorption takes place in the ______.

jejunum

The digestive system in a cadaver is longer than in a living person because in a cadaver there is no

muscle tone.

________________ is the major means of propulsion in the digestive system.

Peristalsis

The short reflexes in the digestive system are stimulated by

the enteric plexuses.

Which of the following statements about the mesentery is incorrect?

It is composed of a layer of serous membrane fused with a layer of mucus membrane.

All of the following organs are retroperitoneal except the

duodenum.

Which of the following arteries is not a branch of the celiac trunk?

the hepatic portal track

Which of the following is the most common cause of peritonitis?

burst appendix

Particularly large collections of lymphoid follicles are found in the pharynx and the

large intestine.

The myxovirus causes

mumps.

Halitosis is caused by

increased activity of anaerobic bacterial activity at the back of the tongue.

Which of the following teeth are most commonly impacted?

wisdom teeth

___________ is the strongest material in the body.

Enamel

Which of the following conditions is directly associated with an increased risk for heart disease and stroke?

periodontitis

Lingual lipase is present in

saliva.

The "mucosal barrier" involves all of the following mechanisms except

secretions from chief cells.

The only stomach function that is essential to life is

the secretion of intrinsic factor.

The ___________ phase of gastric secretion is considered a conditioned reflex.

cephalic

Which of the following would not directly stimulate the secretion of gastrin?

a low pH of gastric content

HCl secretion is stimulated by the binding of all of the following substances except

norepinephrine.

Which of the following intestinal hormones is not part of the enterogastrone?

gastrin

Hollow organs like the stomach that act as reservoirs exhibit

plasticity.

Many of the early food allergies seen in infants are due to

absorption of whole proteins.

A condition that affects the large bowel, but has no physiological or anatomical cause is

irritable bowel.

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