Kinn's medical assistant chapters 29-32 study questions

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Kinn's medical assistant chapters 29-32 study questions

Homeostasis

maintenance of a stable internal environment

Vital signs

temperature, pulse, respiration's, and blood pressure also known as cardinal signs

Anthropometric measurements

measures of height, weight, and skin-fold thickness to evaluate muscle atrophy

Diurnal rhythm

patterns of activity or behavior that follow day-night cycles

Febrile

relating to a fever (elevated temperature)

Afebrile

without fever

Pyrexia

fever or febrile condition

Continuous fever

rises and falls only slightly during the 24 hour period

Intermittent fever

fever that alternates between elevated and normal or subnormal body temperatures

Remittent fever

Fever that alternately rises and drops, but which has no interval of normal body temperature

Bradycardia

slow heart rate, usually below 60 beats per minute

Tachycardia

abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)

Pulse deficit

condition in which the radial pulse is less than the apical pulse; may indicate peripheral vascular abnormality

Pulse rate

the number of pulse beats per minute

Arrhythmia

abnormal rhythm; irregular heartbeat

Intermittent pulse

pulse in which beats are occasionally skipped

Sinus arrhythmia

irregular heartbeat originating in the sinoatrial node

Bounding pulse

a pulse with an increased volume that feels very strong and full

Thready pulse

A PULSE WHICH IS SCARCELY PALPABLE; SMALL, FINE

Respiration

a single complete act of breathing in and out

Spirometer

instrument that measures the volume of inhaled and exhaled air

Dyspnea

difficult or painful breathing

Bradypnea

respiration's that are regular in rhythm but slower than normal in rate

Apnea

absence of breathing, cessation of breathing

Tachypnea

Rapid Shallow breathing

Hyperpnea

increase in depth and rate of breathing

Hyperventilation

EXCESSIVE DEEP AND FREQUENT BREATHING, USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH EMOTIONAL TENSION OR ANXIETY

Orthopnea

Abnormal respiratory symptom in which a person must sit or stand to breathe deeply or comfortably.

Wheezing

a high pitched sound heard on expiration; it indicates obstruction or narrowing of respiratory passages

Rales

abnormal crackling sound made during inspiration

Rhonchi

Abnormal rumbling sounds on expiration that indicate airway obstruction by thick secretions or spasms.

Stertorous breathing

Strenuous respiratory effort marked by a snoring sound.

Systolic

Highest pressure level that occurs when the heart is contracting and the first pulse beat is heard.

Diastolic

The lowest pressure level when the heart is relaxed and the last sound is heard.

Blood pressure

the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels

Pulse pressure

difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

Essential hypertension

elevated blood pressure of unknown cause that develops for no apparent reason; sometimes called primary hypertension

Secondary hypertension

high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease (e.g., kidney disease)

Hypertension

high blood pressure

Hypotension

low blood pressure

Orthostatic hypotension

abnormally low blood pressure when the person suddenly stands up.

Sphygmomanometer

instrument to measure blood pressure

Factors that influence vital signs

nervousness, drinking hot or cold beverages before taking temperature, being angry, fearful, anxious, or apprehensive.

Correct method of taking vital signs

Accuracy is vital

Signs of fever

loss of appetite, headache, thirst, flushed face, hot skin, and general malaise, person experiences chills, shivers, feels cold

Symptoms of lack of oxygen

blue finger tips, blue lips, vertigo, chest pain, and numbness in fingers and toes.

Symptoms of hypertension

Can be a silent killer with no symptoms, but some symptoms may include blurred vision, angina, vertigo, dyspnea, fatigue, headaches, flushing, nosebleeds, and palpitations.

Common causes of errors in BP readings

incorrect calibration, limb used for calibration is not at heart level, pressure is released to rapidly, cuff is improperly applied, cuff is wrong size.

Guidelines for ordering or developing educational materials

material should be written in any language at a 6th-8th grade level to promote pt. understanding. info should be organized and clearly described, all materials should be checked for accuracy. handouts should be attractive and professional. copies should be available in other languages when possible and in large print for visually impaired clients.

nutrients

substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy

Types of carbohydrates and examples

SIMPLE SUGARS (table sugar, molasses, honey candy baked goods, and milk), COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES ie. STARCH (whole grain products, cereal, pasta, rice, grain, potatoes, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and seeds), and DIETARY FIBER (bran, oatmeal, whole grain breads, beans, fruits, vegetables, seeds, and dried fruit).

Functions of vitamins

regulate synthesis of body tissue/ helps metabolize macronutrients/prevents deficiencies/serves as antioxidants

Food pyramid

emphasis good nutritional balance.

Metabolism

the process in which nutrients are used at the cellular level for growth and energy production as well as excretion of waste.

Glycemic Index

rates the foods on how quickly they affect blood glucose levels

TransFats

come from transfatty acids; fatty acids man-made; unsaturated fatty acid molecule are altered structurally.

Functions of protein

Important for growth ,tissue growth and healing and repairing our tissue.protein foods make up muscle,blood,bone,cell membrane and enzymes.

Functions of water

helps body tissues absorb nutrients, helps move waste material through the body Our body is made up of 80% of this substance

Organic food guidelines

must have been produced without exposure to pesticies, chemical fertilizers, or sewage sludge. Animals cannot be given antibiotics or growth hormones must be fed organic fees and have access to the outdoors.

Food-borne illness symptoms

Nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and diarrhea

Febrile rectal, temporal, or Aural temperature

anything over 100.4

Febrile oral temperature

anything over 99.5

Febrile Axillary Temperature

anything over 98.6

FUO "Fever of Unknown Origin

anything over 100.9 that last 3 weeks in a n adult or 1 week in children without a relater known diagnosis.

Korotkoff sounds

the sounds heard in the stethoscope while taking blood pressure

Korotkoff phase one

a sharp thump or tapping sound

Korotkoff phase two

a blowing or whooshing sound

Korotkoff phase three

a crisp, intense tapping

Korotkoff phase four

a softer blowing sound that fades

Korotkoff phase five

silence

Normal body temperature for newborn

98.2 axillary

Normal body temperature for 1 year

99.7

Normal body temperature for 6 years to adult

98.6 oral

Normal body temperature for elderly over age 70

96.8 oral

Digital thermometer

Hand-held, battery-operated device that registers temperature and displays reading as numbers. Can be used whenever but not recommended if the pt. has recently been drinking something.

Tympanic thermometer

Device for measuring the temperature using the blood flow through the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. If the pt. has an earache another method for taking temperature should be used.

Temporal artery scanner

uses an infrared beam to assess the temperature of the blood flowing through the temporal artery of the lateral forehead.

Axillary thermometer

take body temp. through armpit

Disposable thermometer

Only used once reading obtained by heat sensitive material that changes color according to the elevation of temperature.

temporal pulse

Pulse on each side of temple: temporal artery

carotid pulse

pulse located in the neck

apical pulse

pulse taken with a stethoscope and near the apex of the heart

brachial pulse

pulse found on the inner aspect of the elbow

radial pulse

pulse of the radial artery (felt in the wrist)

femoral pulse

Over the femoral artery in the groin

popliteal pulse

Pulse felt at the back of either knee; lower part of femoral artery

dorsalis pedis pulse

Pulse on the top of the foot lateral to the large tendon of the big toe.

What are three characteristics of respiration?

rate, rhythm, and depth

Three factors that affect body temperature

age, stress, gender

Five stages of grief

Denial & isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance. "DABDA"

The following factors affect the patients response to a diagnosis. "Holistic model"

emotional, social impact, intellectual impact, economic impact, spiritual impact.

Perceived susceptibility / how to handle it

patient's opinion on the chance of getting the disorder / supply info on the risk level; individual risk is based on health habits and family history.

perceived severity / how to handle it

patient's opinion on the seriousness of the condition and it's health risks. / outline the potential complications of the disease.

perceived benefits / how to handle it

Patient's belief in the value of altering lifestyle factors and complying with treatment. / Emphasize the positive results than can occur if the patient complies with healthcare recommendations.

Perceived barriers / how to handle it

Patient's opinion on the financial and psychological costs of compliance. / Identify patient barriers and work ro reduce them through patient education, family outreach, and us of community resources.

Cues to action / How to handle it

Methods developed to activate patient compliance. / one on one education interventions; detailed handouts; family involvement in education efforts; follow up at subsequent office visits; referral to community resources.

Self-efficacy / how to handle it

Patient has the confidence to take action to achieve a healthier state. / ongoing education and support.

Guidelines for patient education

Provide knowledge and skills to promote recovery and health.
Encourage pt. ownership and participation in the teaching process.
Include the family and significant others in education interventions, with the pts. approval.
Promote safe, appropriate use of medications and treatment.
Encourage pt. adaptation to healthy behaviors.
Provide information about accessing community resources.

Approaches for language barriers

Address pt. by his/her last name. use a formal approach to communication, use gestures tone of voice and eye contact emphasize appropriate parts of the discussion. use pictures, handouts, models, and other aids that visually depict the material, monitor pt. body language to see if they are confused. use simple everyday words. demonstrate all procedures and have them return demonstration. teach in small manageable steps. give written instructions and use interpreter if possible.

Potential learning barriers for pts.

individual learning style, age and developmental level, use of defense mechanisms, language, motivation to learn, physical limitations or disabilities, emotional or mental state, cultural or ethnic background, pain, time limitations.

Perform and assessment

consider pertinent patient factors, identify learning barriers, prioritize patient information.

Determine pts immediate and long term needs

Decide on the appropriate teaching materials and methods, demonstrate techniques that will be used at home. provide positive feedback.

Maintain an adequate pace while teaching

don't move too quickly through the material/information

Repeatedly ask for pt. feedback because

learning barriers eliminated, immediate learning needs can be addressed. repetition and rephrasing promote understanding.

document teaching intervention

materials covered, pt. response and skill level, plan for next meeting, community referrals.

evaluate teaching plan

was there enough time? was the pt. ready to listen and understand info? were all goals reached?

Summarize material

Go over everything again quickly just to make sure they understand.

Essential nutrients

Substances that must be obtained in the diet because the body either cannot make them or cannot make adequate amounts of them.

Non-essential nutrients

nutrients the body can produce on its own and doesn't need from the outside.

Seven food constituents

carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, minerals, vitamins, and fiber.

total Cholesterol levels for ages 2-20

anything less than 170 is acceptable
170-199 is borderline
above 200 is high

total Cholesterol levels for ages 20 and up

anything less than 200 is acceptable
200-239 is borderline
240 and up is high

LDL Cholesterol levels for ages 2-20

under 110 is acceptable
110-129 is borderline
130 and up is high

LDL Cholesterol levels for ages 20 and up

anything less than 130 is acceptable
130-159 is borderline
160 and up is high

Fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K, vitamins that dissolve in and are stored in fat

Water soluble vitamins

absorbed with water, excreted through urine, cannot be stored, C, B complex

Soluble fiber

Viscous fiber found in oats, barley, peas, and citrus fruits. lowers cholesterol and reduces risk of heart disease.

insoluble fiber

passes through intestine unchanged, cleans them out and encourages mucus production, wheat bran, fruit, vegtables decrease risk of colon cancer and diverticulitis, increase GI mobility

Dietary fiber

Plant material that cannot be digested or absorbed. also called "roughage"

anabolism

Is the building phase it builds large molecules from simple ones; requires energy

catabolism

Is the breaking down phase it breaks down more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy

digestion

combination of mechanical and chemical processes that occur in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine.

High fiber diets

When the amount or bulk of fiber is increased.

Low Fiber diets

When the amount or bulk of fiber is decreased.

Saturated fats

A fat that is solid at room temperature and found in animal fats, lards, and dairy products.

Unsaturated fats

A fat that is liquid at room temperature and found in vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds.

Complete proteins

Proteins containing all the essential amino acids; found only in soy and animal foods (meats and dairy products)

incomplete proteins

Proteins that are missing one or more of the essential amino acids; found in plant sources such as nuts and legumes

Eating disorders

extreme eating behaviors that can lead to serious illness or even death

Anorexia

lack or loss of appetite for food. Self starvation to obtain thinner body

Bulimia

eating disorder characterized by excessive eating followed by purging

Obesity

excessive body weight; corpulence 60 % of the American population is affected by this.

Heart healthy Diet

1. decrease fat and cholesterol intake
2.low fat protein source
3. avoid salt
4. increase fiber
5. decrease alcohol intake
6. DASH ( dietary aproaches to stop hypertension)

Liquid Diet

include both clear liquids and full liquids. Patients with acute infections or digestive problems use this diet A clear liquid diets only allows for clear liquids, while a full diet also allows for milk and creamed liquids

Soft or Light diet

No roughage (raw fruits or vegetable), No strongly flavored or gas forming vegetables and spices are limited. used after surgery.

Mechanical soft diet

Foods that are prepared with blender, food processors, or cutting utensils. Does not limit spices, fat, & other fiber. Only texture of food changes.

Bland diet

a diet of foods that are not irritating, this includes spicy foods & citrus juices, used for people who have intestinal problems or condition such as Crohn's disease or irritable bowel syndrome.

Elimination diet

an investigational short term, or possible life long, eating plan that omits one or more foods suspected or known to cause an adverse food reaction or allergic response

Diabetic diet

a diet designed to help control the symptoms of diabetes

Light

Must be at least 1/3 fewer calories then in regular product

Fresh

raw, never frozen, processed or preserved

calorie free

less than 5 calories per serving

sugar free

less than .5 grams of sugar

sodium free

less than 5mg of sodium per serving

fat free

less than .5 grams of fat per serving

saturated fat free

less then 2 grams of saturated fat per serving

high

provides more than 20% of the recommended daily consumption of the nutrient.

lean

cooked meat or poultry with less than 10.5 grams of fat of which less than 3.5 grams is saturated fat.

extra lean

cooked meat or poultry with less than 4.9 grams of fat which less than 1.8 grams is saturated fat.

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