The simplest answer is the best one
the period of Church history from 1303 to 1377 when the popes lived and ruled in Avignon, France instead of in Rome. A total of seven popes reigned at Avignon; all were French, and all were increasingly under the influence of the French crown. Papacy loses influence. The Avignon Popes lived in lavish palace, materialistic, deeply corrupt. Pope Gregory 11th moves back to Rome.
The belief that the Catholic Church should be led by councils of cardinals rather than popes., An attemt to solve the Great Schism and reform the church by saying the first two popes were no longer popes and annoininting a new pope. 3 Popes.
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption (materialism) of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
Joan of Arc
peasant girl who led french army to victory over the english in the 100 year's war. Symbol of French national identity.
Late Middle Ages (1315-1320s)
Population out grew food supply, FAMINE
Malnutrition in the cities
Weather pattern shift = cold, rainy
1347-1351, Bubonic plague. The plague originated in Mongolia in 1330s, carried by fleas on rats. Symptoms: intense fever, swelling of lymph nodes, black spots appear on hands and fingers, cough up black phlegm. 60-70% chance of death when you get it.
1381, Englush Lollard priest that beleived that since everyone was dying, everyone should have the same rights. Medieval socialist! Peasants Revolt!
are practitioners of an extreme form of mortification of their own flesh by whipping it with various instruments. Claim that the end of the world is near. People go on pilgrimages. People are fascinated with death now.
an appreciation/ a new way of approaching ancient texts and authors. A new appreciation of individual and humanity. The world that we live in (city of man). Believed that scholastics did not study ancient authors and focused too much on Aristotle. were also Christians.
excellence, strength, courage. A man that seized control of his own destiny.
Pico Della Mirandola
Oration on the Dignity of man. Man can cultivate his own virtu.
was a political dynasty, banking family. Financed the new art and political culture of Florence. Lorenzo was most famous.
The Father of Humanism, lived during 14th century. Originally born in Florence, and spent his life wondering around and travelling. Spent time in France, Avignon (Avignon Papacy). Most enduring legacy- stems from his role in elevating Latin authors. Most interesting writings are his letters (to Socrates and other Greco Roman dead men) Coins the term Middle Ages.
(1313-1375) literature should not focus on the exploits of great men alone. Should use everyday language to convey the reality of everyday life. Average people could respond well to this. He was a humanist writer.
book written by Giovanni Boccaccio that details daily life during the plague.
the founder of the humanities curriculum. He believed that all education derived from Greek letters and Latin.
Book of the Courtier
Written by Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529). (1528)- Gave instruction of how men should act at court and how men should court a lady. (book on how to get girls) Encourages men to be refined, sensitive, and know a lot.
sine qua non
without which nothing else exists
Populo Grosso and Populo Minuto
Grosso- rich Minuto- poor (two classes of people in Florence).
peace of Lodi
was a peace agreement between Milan, Naples, and Florence signed on April 9, 1454 at Lodi in Lombardy, on the banks of the Adda. Diplomacy !
1469-1527, Italian Rennaissance Humanist. beleived in human agency, wants republicanism, need a strong prince, virtu and fortune conflict, Italian thucydides (wrote by looking at history)
Early Modern Period
increasing secularism, scientific revolution, Protestant reformation, Discovery of New World, capitalism, and rise of centralized states.
German goldsmith, invented the first printing press. Moveable reusable metal type, put little pieces of little type and manipulate them quickly. Explosion of amount of printed material in Europe. Allows the ideas to reach wider audiences. Increase in literacy in Europe.
Argues for a more democratic conception of Christianity. Uses satire, wit In Praise of Folly.Monks and church clergy are depicted as very dumb and silly. Exposes the injustices and raises awareness that things can be fixed.CHRISTIAN HUMANIST.
means 'no place'. Can also mean 'a good place'. Use this word to criticize peoples thinking, deny human nature (Machiavelli hated utopian thinking). book written by.
St. Thomas More
social critic, writes about private property
wrote Gargantua and Pantegruelsocial hierarchy. Wrote satirical stories about social order. Wrote about things like sex, eating drinking, ribald humor. Rabelaisian- gross, exaggerated designed to shock you (humor).
Gargantua and Pantegruel
His book contained Rabelaisian characters (from this book we get the term gargantuan (giant)).
'tickets to heaven'. A ticket out of purgatory (not hell, but it's not heaven). Something that the church sold to make money.
The Treasury of Merit
all of the good works that were done by the saints and by Jesus. The Pope has the key to the treasury of merit. In exchange for doing something for the church, doesn't have to be monetary, the Pope can open up the treasury and give the person a good work.
prayers, sacrifices, acts of kindness done out of love for god.
friar that sold indulgences.
Martin Luther hung these on the church door in response to the sale of indulgences.
Frederick of Saxony
This was the man who supported and hid Luther after the Diet of Worms.
Luther and Reason
reason was a damned whore, do not need reason!
Orders of Monks in Movie
Franciscan- William of Baskerville
Benidictine- The monks that lived in the castle
Dolcinian- the ones that were the heritics burned at the stake.
a battle in northern France in which English longbowmen under Henry V decisively defeated a much larger French army in 1415
In the battle here, the longbow not chivalry won the day.
Diet of Worms
Charles V invites Luther to a dinner, assembly.
(1509-1564) French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Theologian and Pastor durin gthe Protestant Reformation.Wrote The Institutes of Christian Religion.
doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by God.
The Protestant Work Ethic
Could work really hard, have a good family, God wouldn't elect any slouch or bum.Max Weber- why northern countries became more prosperous. The work ethic of the northern Europe men made them more successful, capitalist economy.
These were the French Calvinists that were often persecuted until the Edict of Nantes.
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
1534 Attempt by radical Anabaptists to form a pure beurocracy in Munster. Led by Jan Matthys and Jan Bockleson. Bockleson and many of his followers were killed and put on display in cages hanging from a local church.
Catherine of Aragon
First wife of Henry 8th and Spanish Princess who was the aunt of Charles 5th (holy roman emperor at the time) when she could give King Henry a son he divorces her.
The Act of Supremacy
(1534) Henry goes to Parliament instead of the Pope and speaks to the gentry (English landowners that do not own powers of nobility). They become the more powerful social class of the 17th century. King was named the head of a new church of England. The church is largely catholic in doctrine. Henry confiscated church land and giving it to the gentry.
Two things: reaffirms the act of supremacy, the independence of the Anglican church from Rome. 2nd thing: Act of uniformity, every citizen has to attend a service. An Anglican church emerges in England that incorporates protestant and Calvinist theology.
Founded the Society of the Jesus (The Jesuits) and wrote Spiritual Exercises which was a guidebook for fellow Jesuits. Could be a layman and get something out of the book. loyal to the Pope. Did not like predestination.
war fought between Emperor Charles and the Schmalkaldic League (German newly Protestant princes) who was aided by France; ended by the Peace of Augsburg.
Peace of Augsburg
(1555) The Prince of each German territory got to decide the religion, this seals the Protestant Reformation.
Cuius Regio, Eius Religio
Who's realm, his religion. (Peace of Augsburg after Schmalkaldic War)
(1588) Spanish Armada is taken out by the English Navy. Beginning of the decline of Spanish power. This is after the Calvanist REvolt in the Spanish Netherlands (helped by Queen Elizabeth)
Concordat of Bologna
(1516)between French king and the Roman pope, the right to appoint church officials. The French monarchy begins to claim control of the Church inside of France.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catherine De Medici's daughter was to wed the Calvanist/protestand Henry Navarre. The night before the wedding, supporters of the Catholic Guise Family kill the Calvanists.
Edict of Nantes
(1598) a toleration edict, Calvinists are able to practice their faith in their households and in some towns where Calvinists were in majority. Ends wars.
Protestant Union and Catholic League
two separate alliances formed by the Protestant and Catholic Princes of Germany during the Thirty Years' War, each was determined that the other should not make any type of religious advance.
Thirty Years War
The Calvanist Bohemian nobility goes against the Catholic Hapsburghes, leads to the Defenestration of Prague (the calvanists throw the Catholic Ambassadors out of a window). The Swedish and French intervene and destroy Germany. (1618-1648)
Peace of Westphalia
End to the 30 years war- get to have their own foreign policy. Reformation is finally sealed. France is the big winner in this war, becomes the super power.
Theory of Knowledge
Royal Society and Academy of Sciences
academies- officially sanctioned scientific societies that helped finance the scientific revolution. Patronage from states. Infrastructure, institutions, finance for science.
Pattern of Knowledge, system of knowledge, change.
Inductive Reasoning. Wanted to detach science from philosophy. All solid knowledge comes from observation from an experience int he natural world. Denies A Priori Knowledge (knowledge before experience). Begin with doubts and end with certainties.
Deductive Reasoning. Truths deducted from mathematical principles. (truths from logical thought) Start with one simple general truth and by using your capacity for thought you could arrive at other truths. Start with many doubts.
Discourse on Method
Rene Descartes Book where he doubts himself and his existance. "i think therefore I am". Proves the existance of God. uses deductive Reasoning!
Wrote On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres- the earth revolves around the sun. Challenged the Christian world view that the sun revolved around the Earth.
Juan De Sepulveda
a humanist scholar that argues that history has shown that the Spaniards are a superior civilization and they have a right to rule the natives and if they resist then they should be crushed brutally. Conquest, Colinization, and Evangilize.
Bartolomew de Las Casas
Said that the Spanish should try to convert Native Americans to Christianity by showing them love, gentleness, and kindness. Enemy of Sepulveda.
Price Revolution/ Great Inflation
Population increases, external trade instead of internal trade. These culminate to the great inflation of the late 15th century
landlords that have been leasing out land to peasants, want to get it back and farm it themselves so that they may make more money by selling the crops themselves. Enclosure of lands that once were farmed by peasants behind a stone wall. Consolidation of land in England.
Putting Out System
Many peasants can no longer farm land. They are forced off the land and then hired back as wage workers. You need fewer peasant to do the work, excess labor pool. Increase in manufactured products in Europe.
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Paradox of Mercantalism.
A enterprise in which many people work together on a potentially risky business venture to split costs. This allows for more costly ventures to occur.
developed religious argument for absolute monarchy in "Politics Drawn from the Words of Scripture" (late 1600s). Says that a monarch derives authority directly from God. This theory makes the king's person sacred, and therefore, opposing the king is sacrilege. Idea that Kings are doing god's work, so they can do no wrong, and are ruling for the welfare of their people.
Wrote Leviathan- All people are in inherently equal. Hobbes looks at ideas from Scientific revolution. all of these equal individuals are equally greedy.The only way to prevent this natural struggle in a world that God is not intervening constantly, we must have absolute sovereignty, where everyone must surrender their sovereignty to an authority that will rule on their behalf.
Wrote Raison D'etat- reason of the state (the national interest) and policy that increases the power of the state is a good policy. Advisor to Louis 8th tried to make france an Absolutist State.
France is divided up into many different compartments, ruled by an intendant that answers to the king- Richelieu.
L'etat C'est Moi- I am the State (the state is me) believes he embodies the state and gets rid of his advisors, he wants to do everything himself. revokes the Edict of Nantes. Absolutism.
Palace of Louis 9th, had nobility come stay here so they will be out of the Kings hair- domestication.
Nobles of the Robe
nobles who are ennobled by the King (monarch) not the nobles of the sword who can actually trace thier lineage back through history.
War of Spanish Succession
1701 - 1713 Caused when Charles II of Spain leaves Spanish empire/crown to Philip of Anjou (Louis XIV of France's grandson). Did not want France to control Spain as well.
Government by law;
the means for which human beings survive is by possessing and exercising fundamental and inherent rights: health, liberty, property (natural rights).Your rights depend on the rights of others and to make sure you keep these, you must transfer these rights to a sovereign authority. If the Civil government in any way abuses those rights, breaks the terms of the contract, individuals have the right to dissolve the contract and establish a new contract with a new sovereignty.
True Law of Free Monarchies- impressed what was beginning to happen in France (absolutist monarchy); he wanted to build something similar in England. Articulates the theory of divine right better than any other king. The kings are the authors and makers of the laws. "Stands above the law." Initiates new conflicts with Parliament that were not there previously.
1629-1640 tries to do things without parliament, and not go to ask about making revenue. The Presbyterians revolt, Charles needs to raise money to have an army so he goes to parliament to get money. Parliament says okay, but you have to respect our right to approve these new revenues, Charles says no and disbands parliament again.
Petition of Rights
famous document in the history of English constitutionalism. The idea that only taxes levied by parliament are legal (king cannot collect taxes without representation/reason, 'no taxation without representation)
The Long Parliament
Parliament stays in session after Charles I tries to dissolve them (1640-1653)- an open revolt against the king. Parliament claims to exercise sovereignty to reflect the will of the English nation. Parliament and the King raise their own armies- Cause English Civil War
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator, dissolved parliament, had a military dictatorship. Tries to impose a puritan value system on England.
William and Mary
Dutch republic King and Queen. Agreed to respect all of the rights of Parliament, agree to the Bill of Rights.
After James II is accused of conspiring with Louis 14th (king of France) Parliament overthrows the English King and puts William and Mary of Orange in control.
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
Father of Enlightenment
a system whereby Indian workers were allocated to Spanish settlers on the understanding that they would be instructed in the Christian faith in return for their
Council of Valladolid (Council of the Indies)
Council by Charles V where Casas and Sepulveda argued about the fate of the Indians in Spanish America. Held different views, Sepulveda 'won'.