Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran. (p. 203)
Persian dynasty. Based in Iran and extended to Mesopotamia. Had very heavy calvary (horses and armored troops). Government followed the example of the Achaemenid administration.
Iranian empire, established ca. 226, with a capital in Ctesiphon, Mesopotamia. The Sasanid emperors established Zoroastrianism as the state religion. Islamic Arab armies overthrew the empire ca. 640. (p. 225)
support consisting of metal loops into which rider's feet go
Indian Ocean Maritime System
In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia. (p. 207)
Trans-Saharan Caravan Routes
Trading network linking North Africa with sub-Saharan Africa across the Sahara.
a strip of dry grasslands on the southern border of the Sahara; also known as "the shore of the desert"
The region south of the Sahara Desert in Africa; includes some of the world's richest deposits of minerals, yet still remains one of the largest regions of undeveloped natural resources in the world.
wide rolling grassy plains that stretch from the Black Sea to northern China
a flat grassland in tropical or subtropical regions
Tropical Rain Forest
a rain forest in a tropical area; Humans relied on tropical forests to provide a steady supply of wood, plants, animals, many of our first fruits, fibers, grains, medicines, cloths, resins, pigments, and other materials. Major trade routes, and empires developed to control the flow of resources.
historians term for a literate, well-institutionalized complex of religiouis and socila beliefs and practices adhered to by diverse societies over a broad geographical area
historians term for a localized, usually nonliterate, set of customs and beliefs adhered to by a single society
a family of languages widely spoken in the southern half of the African continent
a landlocked republic in southwestern Asia
Ethiopia is a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea