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principate

regime of Augustus Caesar

Pax Romana

Roman Peace, age of public order and military stability

tetrarchy

the institutional arrangement created by Diocletian in which rule in the Roman Empire was shared among two Augustuses and two Caesars

dominate

the Roman imperial regime inaugurated by Diocletian in which the emperor was dominus

Apostolic succession

the idea that the authority of the apostles descended to their successors

Petrine Idea

the doctrine that special authority fell to Peter's successor

heresies

beliefs chosen by large numbers of people despite official condemnation

satire

poetic genre created by Horace that playfully rebuked the manners of the age

Horace

poet of the Golden Age, created satire

Neoplatonism

school of thought based on Plato's ideas founded by Plotinus that attempted to reconcile the split between the absolute world of Ideas and the perishable material world

natural law

a justice higher than any human rule or concept, from stoicism

Vulgate

version of the Bible translated into Latin by Jerome

ashlars

massive stones hewn into rectilinear shapes with even surfaces and square corners

voussoirs

wedge-shaped stones that create the rounded arch

keystone

at the center of the semi-circle of the arch, locks the arch in place

vaults

arched ceilings

barrel vault

type of vault that looks like a barrel cut lengthwise

cross vault

two barrel vaults at right angles

oculus

rounded eye in dome of Pantheon

peristyle

colonnaded courtyard

medallions

circular decoration of portraits on Roman architecture

attic

crown of the arch

basilica

large enclosed rectangular structure; floor plan became basis of early Christian churches

apse

curved extension of rectangular end of basilica

nave

central area of basilica

aisles

side passages of basilica

clerestory

row of high-set windows in basilica

transept

crossing section

cruciform

cross shaped

tempera

paint set in a binding solution

mosaics

assemblages of tiny bits of stone, glass, or metal

pantomime

dramatic productions with music and dances

antiphonal

lines sung alternately between leader and a chorus

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