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Public health nursing

requires specific educational preparation; evolved from visiting nursing and district nursing

Community health nursing

denotes a setting for the practice of nursing; evolved from several programs develop in Western Europe

Community based nursing

Working outside of hospitals and nursing homes

Population-focused

assessment, planning and evaluation occur at the population level

Community/public health nurse

A nurse who has received formal public health nursing preparation

Visions

broad statements describing what we desire something to be like

Commitments

agreements we make with ourselves that pledge our energies for or toward our visions

Population

people residing in an area; group or set of persons under statistical study

Group

a collection or set of persons, not a system of individuals who engage in face-to-face interactions

Risk

statistical concept based on probability

Aggregate

synonym for the second definition of population

Distributive justice

ethical concept concerned with the fair provision of opportunities, goods, and services to populations of people

Social justice

the principle that all persons are entitled to have their basic human needs met, regardless of differences in economic status, class, gender, race, ethnicity, citizenship, religion, age, sexual orientation, disability or health

Visiting nursing

originated when concerned laypersons provided care to the sick in their homes

District nursing

started by William Rathbone that assigned nurses to a specific parish or district

Public health

a social activity that builds a comprehensive program of community service on the basic sciences of chemistry, bacteriology, engineering and statistics, physiology, pathology, epidemiology, and sociology

Primary health care

essential health care that is universally accessible to individuals and families within communities

National health objectives

developed and published principles that are published in a series of documents called Healthy People

Health care system

organizational structure in which health care is delivered to a population

Primary prevention

the promotion of healthy behaviors and reduction of health risks, is once again a popular concept

Decentralization

local communities, states, and federal government share responsibilities for regulation and provision of services to the population; health care services are no exception

Free market

private enterprise allowed to develop goods and services as it chooses and to offer them to the clientele, or market, it selects

Gross domestic product (GDP)

a measure of all goods and services sold in the US

Direct care services

health services delivered to an individual

direct care providers

personnel that provide direct care services

Indirect care services

health services that are not personally received by the individual, although they influence health and welfare

Private sector

composed of private organizations, both for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations

Public sector

consists of services provided by public funds and public organizations

Third-party reimbursement

financing of health care by the health insurance company rather than by the individual

Primary prevention

preventing illness (immunizations)

Secondary prevention

screening (BP testing)

Tertiary prevention

eliminating or reducing long-term effects of an illness

Vested interest

groups whose professional practices or finances might be affected by the decisions of the boards

universal coverage

health insurance coverage for everyone

Risk groups

groups with a likelihood of accidents or illness because of low income or inability to easily access health care services

Medicare

covers elderly & disabled

Medicaid

Covers poor, women & children, aged, disabled adults

voluntary organizations

assist in the effort to improve worldwide health

epidemiologic transition

change in illness pattern

emerging infectious diseases

diseases that are either old diseases that are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range or new, previously unknown conditions

Public health law

all laws that have a significant impact on the health of defined populations

Statutory law

enacted through the legislative branch of government

Administrative law

consists of orders, rules, and regulations promulgated by the administrative branches of governments

Judicial or common law

developed through federal and state court decisions

Nurse practice acts

broad frameworks within which the legal scope of nursing practice is defined

statute of limitations

time frame in which legal action of malpractice must be filed

Abandonment

unilateral termination of a professional relationship without affording the client reasonable notice and alternative health care services

lobbyist

informs decision makers and educates others who need to understand community health care issues

occurrence policy

provides protection if the incident occurs while the nurse is insured by the policy

claims-made policy

not only does the incident have to occur while the nurse is insured by the company, but the policy also has to be in force at the time the plaintiff brings suit against the nurse

Epidemiology

the discipline that provides the structure for systematically studying the distribution and determinants of health, disease, and conditions related to health status

mortality

death rates

morbidity

illness rates

incidence

the rate at which a specific disease develop in a population

prevalence

measures all of the existing cases at a given point in time

vital statistics

term used for data collected from the ongoing registration of vital events, such as death certificates, birth certificates, and marriage certificates

surveillance

ongoing systematic collection, analysis and dissemination of health information for the purpose of monitoring and containing specific, primarily contagious, diseases

bioterrorism

use of disease-producing agents as weapons

infective doses

the amount of agent needed to produce illness

Environmental health

aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, chemical, biologic, social, and psychologic problems in the environment

Environmental justice

the disproportionately high exposures of low-income and minority populations to environmental health risks, such as air pollution, hazardous waste incinerators, toxic landfills, pesticides, lead exposure, and unsafe drinking water

cultural self-assessment

developing an awareness of one's own cultural values, attitudes, beliefs, and practices

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