# General Biology 1 Lab

## 25 terms · 30 point exam

### Science

A process of inquiry and investigation through which questions are developed, explanations are examined and new questions are formulated.

### Discovery Science

Involves careful observations of phenomena and demonstrating trends.
"what" is happeneing.

### Hypothesis-based Science

begins with questions derived from discovery science and concentrates on "why" things are happening

### Scientific Method

Problem, hypothesis, variables, methods, predictions, performance, data analysis, interpretation, extensions

### Problem

A question you are trying to answer. May result from an observation or while studying a certain topic in the literature.

### Hypothesis

Possible explanations of the problem. "why"

### Null hypothesis

There is no effect by the treatment. There is no difference between the effect of the variables you are comparing.

### Active hypothesis

There is an effect by the treatment.

### Dependent variable

assumed to be determined by the independent variable, whereas the reverse isn't true.

### Controlled experiment

An experiment in which only one independent variable is allowed to change while the other independent variables are held constant.

### Discrete variables

divided into groups such as the cell is alive or dead.

### Continuous variables

Have an unlimited possibility of intermediate values such as quantity of damage to the cell.

### Experimental control

An additional procedure that either eliminates the independent variable or fixes the independent variable at some standard value.

### Hypothetic-deductive

An important reasoning process. Begins with the derivation of a hypothesis then utilizes deductive reasoning to derive predictions for the test of the hypothesis.

### Deductive reasoning

The process of deriving specific predictions from a general principle.

### Indicies

Mathematical manipulations of the data to make the data easier to work with, understand and allow the data to be compared and/or combinded across different studies.

### Bar Graph

compare differences in means or medians of two discrete groups (T-TESTS)

### Line Graph

Demonstrate a continuous trend in the data. Data changes are relatively constant as the independent variable changes.

### X/Y Scatter plot

Used when data are highly variable and consistent trends between variables may not be present. Often used with regression analysis or regression line/ best fit line.

### Type 1 Error

Incorrectly rejecting a true null-hypothesis

### Level of significance

Must be small before a null-hypothesis can be rejected. P must be less than .05 (a type one error occurs 5 times out of 100 trials

### Regression

A statistical analysis that examines the influence of an independent variable on a dependent variable.
y=mx+b where x is the independent variable, y is the dependent variable, m is the slope, and b the y intercept.

### R2

An indication of how well the data fit the line generated by the regression analysis. near 1 is good, points cluster near line. 0 is poor, points scattered.

### Example of R2: .78

(regression) Means that 78% of the variability in the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable. 22% of the variance in the dependent variable is not explained by the independent variable.

### Significance of F

(regression) If F<.05 then the relationship between the two variables is significant. The independent variable has a significant influence on the dependent variable.

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