A process of inquiry and investigation through which questions are developed, explanations are examined and new questions are formulated.
Involves careful observations of phenomena and demonstrating trends.
"what" is happeneing.
begins with questions derived from discovery science and concentrates on "why" things are happening
Problem, hypothesis, variables, methods, predictions, performance, data analysis, interpretation, extensions
A question you are trying to answer. May result from an observation or while studying a certain topic in the literature.
Possible explanations of the problem. "why"
There is no effect by the treatment. There is no difference between the effect of the variables you are comparing.
There is an effect by the treatment.
assumed to be determined by the independent variable, whereas the reverse isn't true.
An experiment in which only one independent variable is allowed to change while the other independent variables are held constant.
divided into groups such as the cell is alive or dead.
Have an unlimited possibility of intermediate values such as quantity of damage to the cell.
An additional procedure that either eliminates the independent variable or fixes the independent variable at some standard value.
An important reasoning process. Begins with the derivation of a hypothesis then utilizes deductive reasoning to derive predictions for the test of the hypothesis.
The process of deriving specific predictions from a general principle.
Mathematical manipulations of the data to make the data easier to work with, understand and allow the data to be compared and/or combinded across different studies.
compare differences in means or medians of two discrete groups (T-TESTS)
Demonstrate a continuous trend in the data. Data changes are relatively constant as the independent variable changes.
X/Y Scatter plot
Used when data are highly variable and consistent trends between variables may not be present. Often used with regression analysis or regression line/ best fit line.
Type 1 Error
Incorrectly rejecting a true null-hypothesis
Level of significance
Must be small before a null-hypothesis can be rejected. P must be less than .05 (a type one error occurs 5 times out of 100 trials
A statistical analysis that examines the influence of an independent variable on a dependent variable.
y=mx+b where x is the independent variable, y is the dependent variable, m is the slope, and b the y intercept.
An indication of how well the data fit the line generated by the regression analysis. near 1 is good, points cluster near line. 0 is poor, points scattered.
Example of R2: .78
(regression) Means that 78% of the variability in the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable. 22% of the variance in the dependent variable is not explained by the independent variable.
Significance of F
(regression) If F<.05 then the relationship between the two variables is significant. The independent variable has a significant influence on the dependent variable.