A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme.
-rich powerful individuals- elite who controlled political + economic life. Persons with experience Running for Office.
Midwest and Southwest
From where ( what Part of the US) did democracy rise?
Which was the first country to extend its vote to all white men?
an organization linked to a political party that often controlled local government. Diverse social groups and economic interests. Go from city to city trying to obtain votes.
The tightly disciplined state political machine built by Martin Van Buren in New York.
Organized the Jacksonian Democrats and it was successful because of the Albany Argus.
Newspaper used by the Albany Regency Political machine.
a private meeting of party leaders to choose candidates for office.
Election if 1824
Republican party broke up and there were 5 candidates running. John Quincy Adams, John c. Calhoun, William H. Crawford all ran. John Quincy Adams was supported by Henry Clay. Against all of those people ran Andrew Jackson. However he lost because he won the most votes but not the majority and the house of representatives had to vote on the winner. They chose John Quincy Adams because of Henry Clays bribing skills.
Georgia "old republicans"
What part of the US supported William Crawford in the election of 1824?
Massachusetts and New England
What part of the US supported John Quincy Adams in the election of 1824?
What Part of the US supported John C. Calhoun in the electionof 1824?
John Quincy Adams
Who was the last notable president?
Buisness Elite ( Northeast and Midwest)
Who did Adams policies favor?
Calhoun presented this bill in 1817, 1.5 million bank funds to fund internal improvements; passed but vetoed by Madison in his last day in office
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Tariff of 1828
duties on raw materials. Called the Tariff of Abominations.
Where did the tariff of the Abominations hit the hardest?
hint: did not need the protective tariff
Indian Policy of Adams
Adams supported the land rights of Native Americans against southern whites. Advocate of Native American rights.
Election of 1828
Jackson won the presidency because he teamed up with Martin Van Buren. Won because he gave image of being a comman man. Called "old hickory". Jackson appealed to the mob.
During Jackson's presidency. Was an informal group of advisors that met in the kitchen to give jackson advice.
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Ordinance of Nullification
South Carolina declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void and forbade the collection of those duties. In February, 1833, they threatened secession if federal bureaucrats tried to collect them.
John C. Calhoun declared states had a right to nullify. South Carolina declared Nullification Act, stating both tariffs were unconstitutional and therefore illegal.
Force, and demand of Obediance from S.C.
What was Jacksons reaction to the Nullification Act?
Banquet of 1830
Jackson publicy denounced Calhoun's theories about S.C. right to nullift the tariff. He said that it was unconstitutional.
Force Bill 1833
Passed by Congress alongside the Compromise Tariff, it authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties.
Compromise Tariff Act
gradual reduction of import tax ( tax of abominations). Passed after the whole S.C. fiasco.
gold or silver coin
Election of 1832
Clay and Webster persuade Nicholas Biddle to request an early recharter of the bank hoping to split democrats before election by luring Jackson to veto the request. However, with Jacksons rhetoric he denounced the bank and aristocratic and won even more votes. Jackson was reelected.
Indian Removal Act
1830, Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Bad Axe Masscre
followed the Indian Removal Act. Led By Black Hawk and 850 out of 1000 warriors were killed.
Cherokee Nation v Georgia
(1831) The Cherokees argued that they were a seperate nation and therefore not under Georgia's jurisdiction. Marshall said they were not, but rather had "special status"
Worcester v Georgia
(John Marshall) Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it.
Insisted that all Cherokees abide by laws and that their territory was supposed to be ceded to white. Only 2000 of 17000 abided by the law.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
What was Jackson's view towards monopolies?
Charles River Bridge co. V Warren Bridge co.
Charles River Co. had been given a charter to build a bridge over the Charles River to connect Boston and Charleston. Later, the Warren Bridge Co. was given a charter to build another bridge (the Warren Bridge) very close to the Charles River Bridge. The CRB claimed their charter implied exclusive rights, but the Supreme Court, under Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, sided with the Warren Bridge Co.
Mayor of NY v Miln
Ruled NY could use "police power" to inspect the health of arriving immigrants
Briscoe v Bank of Kentucky
Upheld a Kentucky law by which a bank owned by the state was allowed to issue notes which circulated as currency b/c the 2nd bank of the US was no longer in existence. Made a distinction between a state and its bank and since it was the bank the constitution wasn't violated.
The Whigs were originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed Jackson's strong-armed leadership style and policies. The Whigs promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the Whigs disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s.
Second Party System
a period in American political history between 1828 and 1854 and saw rising levels in votes and the major parties were he Democratic led by Jackson and the Whigs led by Clay.
1. Jackson violed constitution with spoils system
2. World dominated by men of ability and wealth
3. believed industrial revolution increased social harmony
4. thought wealthy ppl should provide shelter, food and clothing for poor
Election of 1834
Whigs won the majority in this election.
people who believed that the Free-Mason Society was "undemocratic" and "exclusive" because it was a secret society. Formed part of the Whig Party, because both Jackson and Van Buren were Free-Masons
spreading of the rationalist idea, secret organization
Election of 1836
The Whigs tried to eat the Democrats' national organization with an array of sectional candidates, hoping to throw the election into the House of Representatives. The strategy failed. Martin Van Buren, with significant support in every section of the country, defeated the three Whig candidates combined.
Working Men's Party
Founded by Phili artisans in 1828. campaigned for the abolition of banks, chartered and imprisonment for debt. Hated taxation, and wanted a universal system of public education
Workers on the list not hired because they belonged to Unions
clause in a labor-management agreement that specified workers had to be members of a union before being hired (was outlawed by the taft-Hartley Act in 1947)
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Panic of 1839
State government increased investments in canals and other transportation ventures. Could no longer pay for interest payments on bonds. . Devastated labor movement.
Commonwealth v Hunt
(1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers.
two major rulings:
A. Union was not inherently illegal organization B. Union members could legally attempt to enforce a closed shop and strike
Specie Circular 1836
Jackson required estern sellers to use gold and silver for land purchases.
Independent Treasury Act
Pulled federal specie out of Jacksons pet banks and placed it in the federal government vaults. No economic good.
Election of 1840
Log Cabin Campaign . Whigs nomination william henry harrison with back up of John Tyler. Said Harrison was a self made soldier and that he enjoyed hard cider.
settlers allowed to stake a free Claim to 160 acres of federal land by building houses there and faming and then could later buy the property for $1.25 an acre.
Whos ideas about the preservation of nature led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park?
Which ppl immigrated because of crop failures?
which ppl emmigrated because of failed democracy in their nation?
Know Nothing Party
Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party.
Industrial Revolution Slow
A. Virgin Soil- land cheap B. Labor Scarce C. Money for investment not abundant D. Raw Materials Undeveloped E. Consumers Scarce
Lowell Textile Mills
19th-century mills for the manufacture of cloth, located in Lowell, Massachusetts, that mainly employed young women., a factory workforce, which was about three quarters female and made textiles; bad conditions
Women chose to have fewer Children
What was the first interstate road?
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Invented a type of train car that was made luxurious so that people could sleep in them.
fast sailing ships that were used to transport gold from California to the east coast.
Service begun in 1860 that used a relay of riders on horses to deliver mail from Missouri to California in 10 days.
Which part of US was most connected with the west?
General Incorporation Law
allows corporations to be formed without a charter from the legislature. It also refers to a law enabling a certain type of corporation, such as a railroad, to exercise eminent domain and other special rights without a charter from the legislature. Helped build capitalism.
The time period before the Civil War during which there were many reforms, including the establishment of free (tax-supported) public schools, improving the treatment of the mentally ill, controlling/abolishing the sale of alcohol, winning equal legal/political rights for women, and abolishing slavery.
any of various evangelical Protestant churches that believe in the baptism of voluntary believers
Benefited from Awakening; favored personal conversion, democracy, emotionalism.
much of religious enthusiasm of the time was based on the widespread belief that the world was about to end with the second coming of Christ; preacher William Miller gained tens of thousands of followers by predicting a specific date when the second coming would occur (didn't happen-Millerites will become Seventh Day Adventists)
church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT
This was a religious community established by the Mormons on the banks of the Great Salt Lake in Utah.
The Perfectionist Utopian movement began in New York. People lived in a commune and shared everything, even marriages. Today, the town is known for manufacturing silverware.
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
a celibate and communistic Christian sect in the United States
This was a society that focusted on Utopian Socialism (Communism). It was started by Robert Owens but failed because everybody did not share a fair load of the work.
a place set up by Charles Fourier to end competition in society, live in shared conditions, everything communal design so no advantages; not successful
Temperance movement which involved relying on each other, sharing alcoholic experiences and relying upon divine help, to help keep each other sober. Total abstinence from alcohol was their goal. The group taught sobriety and preceded Alcoholics Anonymous by 100 years.
American Temperence Society
Society established in 1826 in Boston, which promoted Temperance, hence favoring the riddance of alcohol; They believed that it yielded negative effects in the household; Also favored the abolition of slavery, expanding women's rights, temperance, and the improvement of society.
lectures in the open to adults
NY female Reform Society
tried to save women from prostitution
Cult of Domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
American Colonization Society
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
paper started by Frederick Douglas, named beacuse it is the brightest star always north used to lead escaping slaves to freedom in the North, alos supported women's rights
Treaty of New Echota
Signed by only 500 Cherokee Indians who were bribed saying that all 17,000 Cherokee's must leave within 2 years to go to land in Louisiana Territory. IF not they would be forced to leave by the United States Army on the Trail of Tears.