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51. Operant conditioning involves forming associations between:
a. neutral and unconditioned stimuli
b. stimuli and behavior
c. two or more behaviors
d. behavior and consequences

d; Moderate

52. Classical conditioning applies mainly to __________ behaviors. Operant conditioning applies primarily to __________.
a. existing; new behaviors
b. existing; existing behaviors as well
c. voluntary; reflexive behaviors
d. new; new behaviors as well

a; Moderate

53. Which of the following alternatives illustrates operant conditioning?
a. Your mouth waters at the sight of a display of fresh chili peppers in the supermarket.
b. You no longer use a vending machine in the foyer of the computer science building on campus because it has sometimes failed to deliver your soda.
c. You don't know how best to organize the points you wish to make in one section of a political science term paper. The solution suddenly comes to you, though, after you work on your statistics homework for a while.
d. You squirm at the sight of an addict shooting up in a television movie.

b; Moderate

54. Which of the following alternatives illustrates classical conditioning?
a. Your mouth waters at the sight of a display of fresh chili peppers in the supermarket.
b. You no longer use a vending machine in the foyer of the computer science building on campus because it has sometimes failed to deliver your soda.
c. You don't know how best to organize the points you wish to make in one section of a political science term paper. The solution suddenly comes to you, though, after you work on your statistics homework for a while.
d. You squirm at the sight of an addict shooting up in a television movie.

a; Moderate

55. The root of operant conditioning may be traced to ________'s early studies of hungry cats learning to escape from cages.
a. Skinner
b. Thorndike
c. Watson
d. Pavlov

b; Moderate

56. "Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated." This is the law of:
a. consequences
b. reward
c. effect
d. reinforcement

c; Easy

57. Thorndike's notion that successful responses are stamped in by experience may be seen as an early statement of Skinner's concept of:
a. negative punishment
b. positive punishment
c. negative reinforcement
d. positive reinforcement

d; Moderate

58. Perhaps the most influential psychologist to study operant conditioning was:
a. Freud
b. Tolman
c. Pavlov
d. Skinner

d; Easy

59. The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that a preceding behavior will be repeated is called:
a. reward
b. reinforcement
c. conditioning
d. latent learning

b; Moderate

60. Which of the following scenarios is the best example of positive reinforcement?
a. Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound.
b. Drake no longer cuts class now that his parents confiscated his iPod.
c. Maria now buys a different brand of cigarettes to get two packs for the price of one.
d. Nate no longer arrives late at work following a reprimand from his boss.

c; Moderate

61. Which of the following scenarios is the best example of negative reinforcement?
a. Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound.
b. Drake no longer cuts class now that his parents confiscated his iPod.
c. Maria now buys a different brand of cigarettes to get two packs for the price of one.
d. Nate no longer arrives late at work following a reprimand from his boss.

a; Moderate

62. One reason Carlos continues to work at his job is the check he receives every two weeks. Carlos' paycheck is a _________ reinforcer.
a. positive
b. primary
c. secondary
d. both A and C

d; Difficult

63. Negative reinforcement:
a. is the same thing as punishment b. leads to an increase in the probability of a behavior c. decreases the likelihood that a behavior will be performed
d. is the same thing as secondary reinforcement

b; Moderate

64. Which of the following is the best example of positive punishment?
a. taking away a fun toy
b. providing a spanking
c. providing a desired treat
d. taking away a desired treat

b; Easy

65. Which of the following scenarios is the best example of negative punishment?
a. Astrid takes away her daughter's cell phone when she misbehaves.
b. Carly yells at her husband when he comes home late.
c. Jim makes his students run extra laps when they are unruly in gym class.
d. Kevin works as much overtime as he can for the extra pay.

a; Easy

66. Ava is wheeling her toddler, Jamie, through the supermarket after a long and tiring day. When Jamie begins to fuss, Ava scolds her sharply and Jamie's fussing subsides. Which of the following statements is most likely true?
a. Ava's scolding negatively reinforces Jamie's fussing.
b. Ava's scolding punishes Jamie's fussing.
c. That Jamie stops fussing negatively reinforces Ava's scolding.
d. Both B and C.

d; Difficult

67. Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an example?
a. positive reinforcement - Vickie applies lotion to lessen the discomfort of a small burn
b. negative reinforcement - Ella's parents confiscate her car keys for breaking curfew
c. positive punishment - When Laurel takes $20 from her mom's purse, her mother yells at her
d. negative punishment - Maddie receives a bonus for outstanding work performance
sofa

c; Easy

68. Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an example?
a. positive reinforcement - Harvey is suspended when he vandalizes school property
b. negative reinforcement - Jeff puts up his umbrella when it starts to sprinkle so he won't get wet
c. positive punishment - Jacqueline's teacher puts a cute sticker on an arithmetic exercise completed without mistakes
d. negative punishment - Tommy receives a written reprimand from his boss following a series of customer complaints

b; Easy

69. Which of the following statements is correctly matched with the type of consequence it illustrates?
A. Janie continues her drug use because it eliminates unpleasant cravings for the drug -- negative punishment
b. Janie reduces her drug use because it leaves her without money -- negative reinforcement
c. Janie reduces her drug use because of the drug's physical side effects -- negative punishment
d. Janie continues her drug use because it takes her mind off unpleasant thoughts - negative reinforcement

d; Difficult

70. Which of the following defines positive reinforcement?
a. Strengthening a response by removing an unpleasant stimulus
b. Strengthening a response by presenting a pleasant stimulus
c. Weakening a response by removing a pleasant stimulus
d. Weakening a response by presenting an unpleasant stimulus

b; Easy

71. Which of the following defines negative reinforcement?
a. Strengthening a response by removing an unpleasant stimulus
b. Strengthening a response by presenting a pleasant stimulus
c. Weakening a response by removing a pleasant stimulus
d. Weakening a response by presenting an unpleasant stimulus

a; Easy

72. Which of the following defines positive punishment?
a. Strengthening a response by removing an unpleasant stimulus
b. Strengthening a response by presenting a pleasant stimulus
c. Weakening a response by removing a pleasant stimulus
d. Weakening a response by presenting an unpleasant stimulus

d; Easy

73. Which of the following defines negative punishment?
a. Strengthening a response by removing an unpleasant stimulus
b. Strengthening a response by presenting a pleasant stimulus
c. Weakening a response by removing a pleasant stimulus
d. Weakening a response by presenting an unpleasant stimulus

c; Easy

74. Which of the following statements is most true?
a. Punishment is more effective than positive reinforcement in changing behavior.
b. Punishment creates longer-lasting changes in behavior than does positive reinforcement.
c. Punishment may create negative, adversarial relationships.
d. Punishment is rarely effective in changing behavior

c; Moderate

75. You don't receive a smile or a "thank you" each time you hold a door for the person behind you, just most of the time. Door-holding is reinforced on a(n) ___________ schedule.
a. continuous
b. partial
c. intermittent
d. both B and C

d; Moderate

76. On most occasions, drivers you let into your lane acknowledge the favor in some way; sometimes, though, they don't. The behavior of letting drivers in is maintained by __________ reinforcement.
a. secondary
b. positive
c. intermittent
d. A, B, and C

d; Difficult

77. Vending machine is to slot machine as ____________ reinforcement is to __________ reinforcement.
a. continuous; intermittent
b. intermittent; continuous
c partial; intermittent
d. positive; negative

a; Moderate

78. As compared to behaviors reinforced on continuous schedules, behaviors reinforced intermittently are _______ resistant to extinction.
a. more
b. slightly less
c. equally
d. much less

a; Easy

79. Paychecks and grades are delivered on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
a. fixed-ratio
b. fixed-interval
c. continuous
d. variable-ratio

b; Difficult

80. Sometimes when we call a customer service center, we are put on hold; we do not know how long it will be before our holding behavior is reinforced by the response of an associate, and it doesn't matter what we do in the meantime. Holding is reinforced on a _______ schedule.
a. fixed-ratio
b. fixed-interval
c. variable-ratio
d. variable-interval

d; Moderate

81. Which of the following promotions exemplifies the use of a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement?
a. A café prints "You are a winner" on a random one-twelfth of its coffee lids; patrons receiving such a lid can redeem it for a free beverage.
b. A café offers its customers a punch card. Each time a patron purchases a beverage, a hole is punched; when ten holes are punched, the patron receives a free beverage.
c. A café offers each patron an early morning two-for-one free-beverage-with-purchase deal from 5 to 6 a.m. on Monday mornings.
d. Now and then, a café announces a two-for-one deal.

b; Difficult

82. Dr. Arceneaux wants his students to take advantage of online practice quizzes on his course site. Which of the following is the MOST effective plan to increase the number of practice quizzes completed?
a. 1 bonus point for every 2 online practice quizzes completed
b. 5 points deducted from course total if no quizzes completed
c. 1 bonus point awarded every 2 weeks if 2 or more quizzes have been completed
d. 1 bonus point awarded every now and then (about 2 weeks on average) if 2 or more quizzes have been completed recently

a; Difficult

83. Dr. Arceneaux wants his students to take advantage of online practice quizzes on his course site. Which of the following is the LEAST effective plan to increase the number of practice quizzes completed?
a. 1 bonus point for every 2 online practice quizzes completed
b. 5 points deducted from course total if no quizzes are completed
c. 1 bonus point awarded every 2 weeks if 2 or more quizzes have been completed
d. 1 bonus point awarded every now and then (about 2 weeks on average) if 2 or more quizzes have been completed recently

c; Difficult

84. Dr. Arceneaux has developed several alternative plans to increase the number of online practice quizzes his students complete. Which plan below is INCORRECTLY matched with the reinforcement schedule?
a. 1 bonus point for every two online practice quizzes completed—fixed-ratio
b. 1 bonus point awarded every 2 weeks if two or more quizzes have been completed—fixed-interval
c. 1 bonus point awarded every now and then (about 2 weeks on average) if two or more quizzes have been completed recently—variable-ratio
d. None of these is incorrectly matched.

c; Difficult

85. Imagine that you graphed the cumulative number of bar-press responses over time of four rats, each reinforced on a different one of the four schedules of intermittent reinforcement. Each rat's behavior is graphed on a separate line. The line with the greatest slope should be that displaying the behavior of the rat reinforced on the ________ schedule.
a. fixed-ratio
b. fixed-interval
c. variable-interval
d. variable-ratio

d; Moderate

86. Based on your text's discussion, people play slot machines so enthusiastically because:
a. pulling the lever is reinforced on a variable-interval schedule
b. pulling the lever is reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule
c. pulling the lever is reinforced through primary reinforcement
d. pulling the lever is reinforced continuously

b; Moderate

87. Pauses in responding are most pronounced following reinforcement in ________schedules.
a. fixed-interval
b. fixed-ratio
c. variable-interval
d. variable-ratio

a; Difficult

88. In general, _________ schedules of reinforcement yield high response rates. The highest rates are produced by _______ schedules.
a. interval; variable-interval
b. interval; fixed-interval
c. ratio; variable-ratio
d. ratio; fixed-ratio

c; Difficult

89. In general, _________ schedules of reinforcement yield high response rates. The highest rates are produced by _______ schedules.
a. interval; variable-interval
b. interval; fixed-interval
c. ratio; variable-ratio
d. ratio; fixed-ratio

c; Difficult

90. The process of teaching complex behavior by reinforcing ever closer approximations of the desired behavior is called:
a. stimulus control training
b. discrimination training
c. shaping
d. behavior modification

c; Easy

91. Mrs. Martin, a third-grade teacher, is instructing cursive writing. At first, she reinforces even crude attempts to reproduce letters with an encouraging word; as time goes on, though, she reinforces only well-formed letters. By reinforcing progressively better attempts at writing letters, Mrs. Martin is using:
a. discrimination training
b. higher-order conditioning
c. stimulus control training
d. shaping

d; Easy

92. Reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called ________ reinforcers.
a. primary
b. positive
c. unconditioned
d. reflexive

a; Easy

93. Loosely speaking, nature is to nurture as _________ reinforcers are to ________ reinforcers.
a. positive; negative
b. secondary; primary
c. unconditioned; conditioned
d. primary; secondary

d; Moderate

94. Which of the following reinforcers is INCORRECTLY categorized?
a. food—primary reinforcer
b. money—primary reinforcer
c. relief from pain - secondary reinforcer
d. Both B and C are incorrectly categorized.

d; Difficult

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS:

...

95. Operant conditioning is based on forming associations between stimuli.

F; Moderate

96. Negative reinforcement weakens behavior.

F; Moderate

97. A late charge on one's utility bill exemplifies negative punishment.

T; Moderate

98. Positive reinforcement is a more effective way to modify behavior than is punishment.

T; Easy

99. In the real world, behaviors are most often reinforced on continuous schedules.

F; Moderate

100. Relief from pain is a primary reinforcer.

T; Moderate

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS:

...

B. F. Skinner is associated with the study of _________ conditioning.

operant; Moderate

101. A stimulus that increases the likelihood that a preceding behavior will be repeated is termed a(n) __________.

reinforcer; Easy

102. Punishment is a ________ effective learning mechanism than is reinforcement.

less; Easy

103. Behaviors reinforced on a continuous schedule are ________ resistant to extinction than are those reinforced intermittently.

less; Moderate

104. One characteristic of __________ schedules of reinforcement is that there is little responding immediately following the delivery of reinforcement.

interval/fixed-interval; Difficult

105. Shaping is one way that organisms learn relatively _________ behavior.

complex; Moderate

109. The most distinctive characteristic of insight learning is that it:
a. develops slowly
b. appears suddenly
c. generalizes widely
d. involves strong associations

b; Moderate

110. The German psychologist Kohler demonstrated ________ learning among ________.
a. insight; chimpanzees
b. insight; cats
c. insight; humans
d. trial-and-error; chimpanzees

a; Easy

111. Learning that occurs internally and is expressed behaviorally only when there is sufficient motivation to do so is called _________ learning.
a. latent
b. covert
c. subliminal
d. manifest

a; Moderate

112. What was the important finding of Tolman's latent learning experiments in which rats learned to run a maze?
a. Rats that were never reinforced never learned to run the maze.
b. Rats that were never reinforced still learned to run the maze.
c. Rats that began to receive reinforcement halfway through the experiment rapidly matched the performance of rats that had been reinforced from the beginning of the experiment.
d. Rats that began to receive reinforcement halfway through the experiment never learned to run the maze.

c; Difficult

113. You have a kind of picture in your head of your hometown, a mental representation of its layout and the location of key landmarks, like rivers, buildings, freeways, and parks. This representation is called a(n):
a. internal navigator
b. mental GPS
c. mental model
d. cognitive map

d; Moderate

114. Why might Tolman's latent learning results pose a problem for strict, Skinnerian views of learning?
a. The results suggest that direct reinforcement is not necessary for learning to occur.
b. The results suggest that internal processes may be necessary to fully explain learning.
c. The results suggest that insight is an important part of learning.
d. both A and B

d; Difficult

115. Bandura's "Bobo doll" experiments were intended to demonstrate:
a. shaping
b. observational learning
c. latent learning
d. insight

b; Easy

116. Kayla is helping her professor conduct an observational learning study in which the model is either similar or dissimilar to the participant. In this study, the similarity of the model to the participant is a(n) _________ variable.
a. independent
b. dependent
c. experimental
d. control

a; Moderate

117. Bandura (1977) wrote that, "the prospects for survival would be slim indeed if one could learn only by suffering the consequences of trial and error." To what extent is this statement consistent with the views of earlier operant conditioning theorists such as Thorndike and Skinner? Which perspective in today's psychology does Bandura seem to anticipate with this statement?
a. This statement differs from the views of Thorndike and Skinner. Bandura's statement seems to anticipate the social/cultural approach in psychology.
b. This statement reflects the views of Thorndike and Skinner. Bandura's statement seems to anticipate the social/cultural approach in psychology.
c. This statement reflects the views of Thorndike and Skinner. Bandura's statement seems to anticipate the evolutionary approach in psychology.
d. This statement differs from the views of Thorndike and Skinner. Bandura's statement seems to anticipate the evolutionary approach in psychology.

a; Difficult

118. To which form of learning does your text attribute the strong correlation between family violence in childhood and violence as an adult?
a. observational learning
b. insight c. latent learning
d. classical conditioning

a; Easy

119. Which cognitive learning theorist is CORRECTLY matched with the concept with which he is associated?
a. Bandura — latent learning
b. Tolman — insight
c. Kohler - observational learning
d. Skinner - operant conditioning

d; Easy

120. Which cognitive learning theorist is CORRECTLY matched with the concept with which he is associated?
a. Bandura — observational learning
b. Tolman — insight
c. Skinner - classical conditioning
d. Tolman - operant conditioning

d; Easy

121. According to your text, the average child in the U. S. has viewed ________ of murders on network TV by the time he or she graduates from elementary school.
a. dozens
b. hundreds
c. thousands
d. tens of thousands

c; Moderate

122. Bandura's research on modeling aggressive behavior using Bobo dolls showed which of the following?
a. modeling could decrease aggressive behavior in some conditions
b. boys modeled more than girls
c. modeling could teach children new behaviors
d. modeling had little influence on behavior

c; Easy

123. Which of the following best defines latent learning?
a. Learning by observing the behavior of others
b. Learning as a result of unconscious reinforcement
c. Learning not demonstrated until there is a motivation to do so
d. Learning as a result of unconscious conditioning

c; Easy

124. When Anderson and Bushman had research participants play either a violent or a non-violent video game, they found that participants who had played the violent game
a. expressed more aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors,
b. expressed more aggressive behaviors, but not more aggressive thoughts and feelings.
c. were also more altruistic.
d. also had higher self esteem

c; Moderate

125. Which of the following is the correlation coefficient a researcher would most likely obtain between scores on a measure of exposure to media violence and scores on a measure of aggressive behavior?
a. .00
b. .30
c. .80
d. 1.00

b; Moderate

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS:

...

126. B. F. Skinner and John Watson believed that conditioning processes could account for all learning.

T; Moderate

127. Kohler examined trial-and-error learning among cats.

F; Moderate

128. Tolman's work suggests that learning may occur even when behavior is not directly reinforced.

T; Moderate

129. The relation between viewing television violence and behaving aggressively is weak.

F; Moderate

130. "Eureka! I've got it!" The sudden awareness of a problem's solution is termed ________ learning.

insight; Easy

131. Tolman is to _________ as latent learning is to observational learning.

Bandura; Moderate

132. In observational learning, the organism whose behavior is observed is termed the ________.

model; Moderate

1. Operant conditioning has been applied to:
a. motivate employees
b. help parents toilet train children
c. improve functioning among the developmentally disabled
d. A, B, and C

d; Moderate 7.3

2. In an advertisement that uses classical conditioning to persuade, the product or service being promoted is usually a(n):
a. unconditioned stimulus
b. conditioned stimulus
c. positive reinforcer
d. negative reinforcer

b; Moderate 7.3

3. According to your text, advertisers use enjoyable music, cute babies, attractive models, and funny spokespeople to create positive advertisements. The music, babies, and so on are best thought of as:
a. unconditioned stimuli
b. conditioned stimuli
c. positive reinforcers
d. primary reinforcers

a; Moderate 7.2

4. The differences between competing varieties of toothpaste are small and consumers spend little time weighing the available toothpaste options. By contrast, there are sizeable differences between computer operating systems, and people consider the alternatives carefully. Based on this information, which of the following statements is probably the most reasonable with respect to the effectiveness of classical conditioning principles in advertising toothpaste on the one hand, and computer operating systems on the other?
a. Classical conditioning principles would be highly effective in advertising both types of products.
b. Classical conditioning principles would be not be effective in advertising either type of product.
c. Classical conditioning principles would be more effective in advertising computer operating systems than in advertising toothpaste.
d. Classical conditioning principles would be more effective in advertising toothpaste than in advertising computer operating systems.

d; Easy 7.2

5. The use of classical conditioning principles in advertising is most likely to be effective when:
a. we know a great deal about the product already
b. when there are big price differences between competing products
c. when we give little thought to the choices
d. when we do not pay attention to the ad

c; Moderate 7.2

6. Recall Watson's famous "Give me a dozen healthy infants . . ." passage, quoted in your text. The passage expresses Watson's belief on the importance of _____.
a. nature
b. classical conditioning
c. nurture
d. conscious processes

c; Easy 7.2

7. Skinner promoted the use of an educational system involving self-teaching and carefully sequenced materials. The system is known as _______ instruction.
a. reinforced
b. computer-aided
c. conditioned
d. programmed

d; Easy 7.3

8. Programmed instruction is based on the principles of ________ conditioning. It was promoted by _________.
a. classical; Skinner
b. classical; Watson
c. operant; Watson
d. operant; Skinner

d; Moderate 7.3

9. Your text reports an experiment by Lepper et al. (1973) on the effects of reward. In the study, children were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: an expected reward condition, an unexpected reward condition, or a no reward condition. The children in the _____ condition were more likely to lose their initial interest in the task.
a. expected reward
b. unexpected reward
c. no reward
d. A and C.

a; Moderate 7.3

10. Which of the following is the important finding in the research by Lepper et al. (1973) on the effects of reward?
a. Reward can motivate students to do better
b. Monetary reward is not effective
c. Reward can undermine initial interest in a behavior
d. The effects of reward only last a short period of time

c; Moderate7.3

11. Concerning its effects on liking for a task, the use of reward:
a. has variable, unpredictable effects on the intrinsic enjoyment of the task
b. slightly increases the intrinsic enjoyment of the task
c. may reduce the intrinsic enjoyment of the task
d. greatly increases the intrinsic enjoyment of the task

c; Moderate

12. Your text reports a meta-analysis by Gershoff (2002) examining the effects of the use of punishment on children's behavior. The use of punishment was positively related to _________ and negatively related to ___________.
a. compliance with parental demands; both mental health and the ability to control aggression
b. aggression; both mental health and the ability to control aggression
c. both compliance with parental demands and aggression; the ability to control aggression
d. both compliance with parental demands and aggression; both mental health and the ability to control aggression

d; Difficult 7.3

13. Which of the following expressions best captures the meaning of the term outcomes?
a. (positive reinforcers + positive punishers) - (negative punishers + negative reinforcers)
b. (positive reinforcers - negative reinforcers)
c. (positive reinforcers + negative punishers) - (positive punishers + negative reinforcers)
d. (positive reinforcers + negative reinforcers) - (positive punishers + negative punishers)

d; Difficult

14. In the terminology of classical conditioning, a consumer's positive response to a product is usually an unconditioned response.

F; Difficult 7.2

15. The use of fear in advertisements is largely ineffective.

F; Moderate 7.2

16. Somewhat paradoxically, the use of reward can decrease students' interest in a task or assignment.

T; Easy 7.3

17. Reinforcement and punishment are equally effective in changing behavior.

F; Easy 7.3

18. The principles of operant conditioning can shed light on social dilemmas.

T; Easy 7.3

19. Classical conditioning is an effective marketing tool. In a successful advertisement, the product being marketed is a(n) ___________ stimulus.

conditioned; Moderate 7.2

20. A particular automobile is prominently advertised during a popular television talent competition. In the language of classical conditioning, viewers' liking for the car reflects a(n) _________ response.

conditioned; Moderate 7.2

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