allos some substances to cross more easily than others
membrane proteins that are embedded in the membrane
membrane proteins that are loosely bound to the protein
substance on the membrane that is crucial in cell-cell recognition
molecules that are attracted to water
molecules that are repelled by water
the way in which hydrophilic substances pass through the membrane
the way in which water passes through the membrane
substance travels down its concentration gradient
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
more solutes in the water around the cell
fewer solutes in the water around the cell
passive diffusion through transport proteins
transportation of molecules across the membrane against their concentration gradient using ATP.
the difference in electric charge across a membrane
a transport protein that generates voltage across the membrane
an ATP pump that transports a specific solute and indirectly drives the active transport of other substances
vesicles from the cells interior fuse with the cell membrane, expelling their contents
cell takes in large molecules
cell wraps around a solid particle bringing it into the cell. a type of endocytosis.
the cell takes in small droplets of extracellular fluid within small vesicles. a type of endocytosis.
substances bind to receptors on the cell's surface and a vesicle forms around the substance and the vesicle is pinched off into the cytoplasm. a type of endocytosis.
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
release of energy by the breakdown of complex molecules
consumes energy to build complicated molecules
reaction that releases energy. spontaneous.
reaction that requires energy to proceed.
the use of an exergonic process to drive an energonic one
substances that can change the rate of a reaction without being altered in the process
macromolecules that are biological catalysts.
the amount of energy it takes to start a reaction/break the bonds of the reactant molecules
the reactant that the enzyme acts on
the part of the enzyme that binds to the substrate
non-protein helpers. inorganic. eg. zinc, iron and copper.
non-protein helpers. organic. eg. vitamins.
reversible inhibitors that compete with the substrate for the active site on the enzyme.
inhibitors that do not directly compete with the active site, but bind to another part of the enzyme to change the shape of the enzyme and possible render the site dysfunctional.