the outer layer of the skin, made of stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium
mitosis constantly renews this layer, which forms a barrier between the body and the external enviroment
the inner layer of skin, made of modified fibrous connective tissue
contains the accessory structures of the skin, such as the receptors and sweat glands
made of areolar connective and adipose tissue
connects the dermis to the muscles and stores fat
name the epidermal layer in which mitosis takes place
name the epidermal layer that is composed of dead cells
in the stratum corneum, all that is left of the cells is the protein
the stratum corneum is an effective barrier that prevents the loss of _______ from the body and also prevents entry of ________ and _________.
water, bacteria, chemicals
if the skin is subjected to constant pressure, a thicker are epidermis will be formed. More cells are produced by the process of ______ in the _______ (layer).
mitosis, stratum germinativum
if the skin is subjected to friction, layers of the epidermis may be separated, and ______ will collect in the area and form a ______.
tissue fluid, blister
langerhans cells are found in the epidermis, but may have come from the _______.
when langerhans cells phagocytize pathogens, they carry them to ______ (types of WBC'S) found in ______.
lymphocytes, lymph nodes
in response to the pathogen, the lymphocytes initiate an immune reaction such as the production of _______.
antibacterial chemicals produced in the epidermis are called _____.
melanocytes produce the protein _____, which is a pigment
what is the stimulus for increased melanin production
ultra violet light
explain the function of melanin (not to give skin color)
acts as a barrier and prevents further exposure of the living stratum germinativum and roaming langerhans cells to uv rays
merkel cells are found in the ________ and are receptors for the sense of ____.
stratum germinativum, touch
the cell that produces collagen and elastin
the protein that gives the dermis it's strength
the protein that gives the dermis it's elasticity
contains capillaries to nourish the stratum germinativum of the epidermis
mitosis at the root produces the hair shaft
mitosis at the root produces the nail
produce a lipid substance called sebum
eccrine sweat glands
produce their secretions during exercise or in a warm environment
apocrine sweat glands
produce their secretion in times of stress or strong emotions
produce cerumen, or earwax
provide information about changes in the external environment
the free nerve endings in the dermis are the receptors for the cutaneous sense of _____, ____, _____, _____.
pain, heat, cold, itch
the encapsulated nerve endings in the dermis are the receptors for the cutaneous senses of _____, and ______.
touch , pressure
explain why the skin of the palm is more sensitive to touch than is the skin of the shoulder?
there are more receptors in the palm than the shoulder
the ends of the fingers and the toes are protected from mechanical injury by what?
name the protein structures the nails are made from
the secretion that helps prevent drying of the eardrum is
the secretion that helps prevent drying of the skin and hair is
the secretion that helps lower body temperature is
the secretion that inhibits bacterial growth on the skin is
one function human hair is to keep the dust out of the _____ or _____.
another function of of hair is to provide insulation from the cold for the _____ (PART OF THE BODY)
name the protein hair is made out of
in stress situations, the _______ in the dermis will constrict to shunt blood to more vital organs
the vitamin formed in the skin is vitamin _____, which is made from _______ when the skin is exposed to _______.
D, cholesterol, UV Rays
the function of vitamin D is to promote the absorption of _______ and _______ in the small intestine.
the other name for subcutaneous tissue is the _______
the subcutaneous tissue is located between the ____ and the ______
name the two types of connective tissue in the dermal layer
areolar (loose) connective tissue, adipose tissue
the areolar connective tissue contains many white blood cells that destroy ______ that have entered ______
pathogens, breaks in the skin
areolar connective tissue also contains mast cells that produce ______ when tissue damage occurs; this substance contributes to the process of _______
the adipose tissue contains cells that are specialized to store ____ as a source of potential ____
state 2 other functions of subcutaneous fat
cushions bony prominences, provides insulation against cold
the role of the skin in the maintenance of body temperature depends upon the ______ glands and the small arteries called _______
eccrine sweat, arterioles
in a ____ environment, the eccrine sweat glands secrete more sweat onto the skin surface
excess body heat is then lost in the process of _____ of the sweat
in a cold environment, the arterioles in the dermis will _____(constrict or dilate)
this will _____ (increase or decrease) blood flow through the dermis, and body heat will be ______ ( lost or retained)
in a warm environment, the arterioles in the dermis will ______(constrict or dilate)
this will ______ (increase or decrease) blood flow through the dermis, and the body heat will be _____ (lost or retained)
the tissue in the walls of the arterioles that permits vasoconstriction or vasodilation is
the skin is painful but not blistered
the skin is painful and blistered
the skin is charred and may not be painful at first
extensive third degree burns may be very serious because of the loss of which layer of the epidermis
state the 2 potentially serious problems for patients with extensive third degree burns
sweat gland that maintains normal body temperature
produced in follicles of the scalp`
covers the surface of the body
tissue that connects the skin to the muscles
protects living skin from exposure to uv rays
protects the end of a finger
detect changes in the environment
waterproof protein of the epidermis
stratum___ produces new epidermal cells
glands that secrete cerumen
decreases blood flow through arterioles
increases blood flow through arterioles
glands that secrete sebum
uneven junction of the dermis and epidermis
outer layer of skin
inner layer of skin
stratum _____ prevents entry of pathogens to the body