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Anatomy And Physiology Integumentary System Workbook Questions

epidermis

the outer layer of the skin, made of stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium

epidermis

mitosis constantly renews this layer, which forms a barrier between the body and the external enviroment

dermis

the inner layer of skin, made of modified fibrous connective tissue

dermis

contains the accessory structures of the skin, such as the receptors and sweat glands

subcutaneous tissue

made of areolar connective and adipose tissue

subcutaneous tissue

connects the dermis to the muscles and stores fat

name the epidermal layer in which mitosis takes place

stratum germinativum

name the epidermal layer that is composed of dead cells

stratum corneum

in the stratum corneum, all that is left of the cells is the protein

keratin

the stratum corneum is an effective barrier that prevents the loss of _______ from the body and also prevents entry of ________ and _________.

water, bacteria, chemicals

if the skin is subjected to constant pressure, a thicker are epidermis will be formed. More cells are produced by the process of ______ in the _______ (layer).

mitosis, stratum germinativum

if the skin is subjected to friction, layers of the epidermis may be separated, and ______ will collect in the area and form a ______.

tissue fluid, blister

langerhans cells are found in the epidermis, but may have come from the _______.

bone marrow

when langerhans cells phagocytize pathogens, they carry them to ______ (types of WBC'S) found in ______.

lymphocytes, lymph nodes

in response to the pathogen, the lymphocytes initiate an immune reaction such as the production of _______.

antibodies

antibacterial chemicals produced in the epidermis are called _____.

defensins

melanocytes produce the protein _____, which is a pigment

melanin

what is the stimulus for increased melanin production

ultra violet light

explain the function of melanin (not to give skin color)

acts as a barrier and prevents further exposure of the living stratum germinativum and roaming langerhans cells to uv rays

merkel cells are found in the ________ and are receptors for the sense of ____.

stratum germinativum, touch

fibroblasts

the cell that produces collagen and elastin

collagen fibers

the protein that gives the dermis it's strength

elastin fibers

the protein that gives the dermis it's elasticity

papillary layer

contains capillaries to nourish the stratum germinativum of the epidermis

hair follicles

mitosis at the root produces the hair shaft

nail follicles

mitosis at the root produces the nail

sebaceous glands

produce a lipid substance called sebum

eccrine sweat glands

produce their secretions during exercise or in a warm environment

apocrine sweat glands

produce their secretion in times of stress or strong emotions

ceruminous glands

produce cerumen, or earwax

receptors

provide information about changes in the external environment

the free nerve endings in the dermis are the receptors for the cutaneous sense of _____, ____, _____, _____.

pain, heat, cold, itch

the encapsulated nerve endings in the dermis are the receptors for the cutaneous senses of _____, and ______.

touch , pressure

explain why the skin of the palm is more sensitive to touch than is the skin of the shoulder?

there are more receptors in the palm than the shoulder

the ends of the fingers and the toes are protected from mechanical injury by what?

nails

name the protein structures the nails are made from

keratin

the secretion that helps prevent drying of the eardrum is

cerumen

the secretion that helps prevent drying of the skin and hair is

sebum

the secretion that helps lower body temperature is

sweat

the secretion that inhibits bacterial growth on the skin is

sebum

one function human hair is to keep the dust out of the _____ or _____.

eyes, nose

another function of of hair is to provide insulation from the cold for the _____ (PART OF THE BODY)

head

name the protein hair is made out of

keratin

in stress situations, the _______ in the dermis will constrict to shunt blood to more vital organs

arterioles

the vitamin formed in the skin is vitamin _____, which is made from _______ when the skin is exposed to _______.

D, cholesterol, UV Rays

the function of vitamin D is to promote the absorption of _______ and _______ in the small intestine.

calcium, phosphorus

the other name for subcutaneous tissue is the _______

superficial fascia

the subcutaneous tissue is located between the ____ and the ______

dermis, muscles

name the two types of connective tissue in the dermal layer

areolar (loose) connective tissue, adipose tissue

the areolar connective tissue contains many white blood cells that destroy ______ that have entered ______

pathogens, breaks in the skin

areolar connective tissue also contains mast cells that produce ______ when tissue damage occurs; this substance contributes to the process of _______

histamine, inflammation

the adipose tissue contains cells that are specialized to store ____ as a source of potential ____

fat, energy

state 2 other functions of subcutaneous fat

cushions bony prominences, provides insulation against cold

the role of the skin in the maintenance of body temperature depends upon the ______ glands and the small arteries called _______

eccrine sweat, arterioles

in a ____ environment, the eccrine sweat glands secrete more sweat onto the skin surface

warm

excess body heat is then lost in the process of _____ of the sweat

evaporation

in a cold environment, the arterioles in the dermis will _____(constrict or dilate)

constrict

this will _____ (increase or decrease) blood flow through the dermis, and body heat will be ______ ( lost or retained)

decrease, retained

in a warm environment, the arterioles in the dermis will ______(constrict or dilate)

dilate

this will ______ (increase or decrease) blood flow through the dermis, and the body heat will be _____ (lost or retained)

increase, lost

the tissue in the walls of the arterioles that permits vasoconstriction or vasodilation is

smooth muscle

first degree

the skin is painful but not blistered

second degree

the skin is painful and blistered

third degree

the skin is charred and may not be painful at first

extensive third degree burns may be very serious because of the loss of which layer of the epidermis

stratum corneum

state the 2 potentially serious problems for patients with extensive third degree burns

infection, dehydration

sweat gland that maintains normal body temperature

eccrine

produced in follicles of the scalp`

hair

covers the surface of the body

skin

tissue that connects the skin to the muscles

subcutaneous

protects living skin from exposure to uv rays

melanin

protects the end of a finger

nail

small arteries

arterioles

detect changes in the environment

receptors

waterproof protein of the epidermis

keratin

sunshine vitamin

vitamin D

produces melanin

melanocyte

stratum___ produces new epidermal cells

germinativum

glands that secrete cerumen

ceruminous

decreases blood flow through arterioles

vasoconstriction

increases blood flow through arterioles

vasodilation

glands that secrete sebum

sebaceous

uneven junction of the dermis and epidermis

papillary layer

outer layer of skin

epidermis

inner layer of skin

dermis

stratum _____ prevents entry of pathogens to the body

corneum

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