Survey of Criminal Justice Ch. 2 usie040630

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Uniform Crime Reports

An annual FBI publication that summarizes the incidence and rate of reported crimes throughout the United States.

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

The annual survey of selected American households conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics to determine the extent if criminal victimization - especially unreported victimization - in the United States.

Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)

A U.S. Department of Justice agency responsible of the collection of criminal justice data, including the annual National Criminal Victimization Survey.

Crime Index

Summed the occurrences of seven major offenses - murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft - and expressed the result as a crime rate based on population.

Violent Crime

A UCR offense category that includes murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.

Property Crime

A UCR offense category that includes burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.

Clearance Rate

Refers to the proportion of reported crimes that have been "solved" through arrests or other means.

Murder

The unlawful killing of one human being by another.

Part 1 Offenses

A set of UCR categories used to report murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson, as defined under the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting Program, Also major crimes.

Rape

Unlawful sexual intercourse, achieved through force and without consent.

Forcible Rape

The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will.

Sexual Battery

Intentional and wrongful physical contact with a person, without his or her consent, that entails a sexual component or purpose.

Data Rape

Unlawful forced sexual intercourse with a female against her will that occurs within the context of a dating relationship.

Robbery (UCR)

The unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.

Assault (UCR)

The unlawful attack by one person upon another.

Aggravated Assault (UCR)

The unlawful, intentional inflicting, or attempted or threatened inflicting, of serious injury upon the person of another.

Burglary (UCR)

The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft.

Larceny-Theft (UCR)

The unlawful taking or attempted taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another.

Motor Vehicle Theft (UCR)

The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle.

Identity Theft

A crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of information, such as Social Security and driver's license numbers, to obtain credit, merchandise, and services in the name of the victim.

Arson (UCR)

The burning or attempted burning of property, with or without the intent to defraud.

Part II Offenses

A set of UCR categories used to report arrests for less serious offenses.

National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)

An incident-based reporting system that collects data on every single crime occurrence.

Dark Figure of Crime

Crime that is not reported to the police and that remains unknown to officials.

Crime Typology

A classification of crimes along a particular dimension, such as legal categories, offender motivation, victim behavior, or the characteristics of individual offenders.

Stalking

Repeated harassing and threatening behavior by one individual against another, aspects of which may be planned or carried out in secret.

Cyberstalking

The use of the Internet, e-mail, and other electronic communication technologies to stalk another person.

Hate Crime

A criminal offense in which the motive is "hatred, bias, or prejudice, based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation of another individual or group of individuals.

Corporate Crime

A violation of a criminal statute by a corporate entity or by its executives, employees, or agents acting on behalf of or for the benefit of the corporation, partnership, or other form of business entity.

Organized Crime

The unlawful activities of the members of a highly organized, disciplined association engaged primarily in supplying illegal goods and services, including gambling, prostitution, loan sharking, narcotics, and labor racketeering.

Transnational Organized Crime

Unlawful activity undertaken and supported by organized criminal groups operating across national boundaries.

Malware

Malicious computer programs such as viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.

Computer Crime

Any crime perpetrated through the use of computer technology.

Computer Virus

A computer program designed to secretly invade systems and either modify the way in which they operate or alter the information they store.

Software Privacy

The unauthorized duplication of software or the illegal transfer of data from one storage to another.

Spam

Unsolicited commercial bulk e-mail (UCBE), whose primary purpose is the commercial advertisement or promotion of a commercial product or service.

Terrorism

A violent act or an act of dangerous to human life in violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any state committed to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives.

Domestic Terrorism

The unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who is based and operates entirely within the United States and its territories within foreign direction and whose acts are directed at elements of the U.S. government or population.

International Terrorism

The unlawful use of force or violence by a group or individual who has some connection to a foreign power or whose activities transcend national boundaries against people or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives.

Cyberterrorism

A form of terrorism that makes use of high technology, especially computers and the Internet, in the planning and carrying out of terrorist attacks.

White-Collar Crime

Nonviolent crime for financial gain committed by means of deception by people whose occupational is entrepreneurial, professional, or semiprofessional and that utilizes their special occupational skills and opportunities.

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