wellness exam ch 10
|vulva||All of the female external organs, collectively. Also called genitals|
|mons pubis||The fatty, rounded areas of tissue in front of the pubic bone.|
|internal female sexual anatomy|| Vagina: The tube that connects a woman's external sex organs with her uterus.|
Uterus (womb): The pear-shaped organ where a growing fetus is nurtured.
Ovaries: where ova (eggs) reside.
Fallopian tubes: A pair of tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus.
|preventive care (vaginal)|| 21- first pap smear, pelvic exam|
>30, cervical screening every 2 years
>30, 3 years between each pap smear
|Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)||yeast infection|
|epididymis||A coiled tube on top of each testicle where sperm are held until they mature.|
|vas deferns||A tube ascending from the epididymis that transports sperm.|
|accessory glands- male||Glands (seminal vesicles, prostate gland and Cowper's glands) that lubricate the reproductive system and nourish sperm|
|prostate gland||The function of the prostate is to store and secrete a slightly alkaline fluid, milky or white in appearance, that usually constitutes 20-30% of the volume of the semen along with spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid.|
|seminal vesicles||About 50-70% of the seminal fluid in humans originates from the seminal vesicles.|
|cowpers gland||During sexual arousal each gland produces a clear, viscous secretion known as pre-ejaculate. This fluid helps to lubricate the urethra for spermatozoa to pass through, neutralizing traces of acidic urine in the urethra, and helps flush out any residual urine or foreign matter.|
|phases of menstrual cycle||1- menstrual phase- menstrual flow, release of follicle stimulating hormone from pituitary, release of estrogen|
2- proliferative phase- thickening of uterine lining, discharge of cervical mucous; ends when lutinizing hormones triggers release of egg
3- secretory phase- degeneration of follicle sac, high progresterone, increase of endometrial lining
|endometriosis||A condition in which endometrial tissue grows in areas outside of the uterus|
|transgenderism||the state in which someone's gender identity or gender expression is different from his or her assigned sex at birth.|
|transsexual|| transgendered individual who lives as the gender opposite to their assigned sex.|
Hormonal treatments and surgical procedures are sometimes used to complete the physical transformation from one sex to the other.
|HIV|| attacks CD4, monocytes, macrophages|
AIDS- when CD4 < 200
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
Frequent and difficult to treat vaginal yeast infections
|HIV treatment|| Reverse transcriptase inhibitors.|
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Structured intermittent therapy.
Inhibit the fusion of viral and cell membranes
|Hep B|| More than 50 times as infectious as HIV|
unprotected sex. sharing needles, razors, syringes
Symptoms in 2-3 months -abdominal and joint pain, nausea, dark urine, weakness, fatigue, jaundice.
testing- blood test
Interferon (shots given for 4 months)
Lamivudine (pill taken 1x/day for 1 year)
|HERPES|| 1- oral, 2-genital|
infected for life
testing- visual, culture, blood test for 1
|HPV|| warts, more than 100 types, 4 main ones|
genital warts- STD, (Condyloma)
Dysplasia (pre-cancerous condition)
women- can grow in cervix, vagina, vulva, urethra, anus
|HPV testing/treatment|| TESTING AND TREATMENT FOR WOMEN|
Evaluation using a colposcope
Destruction with liquid nitrogen (cryosurgery]
Surgical excision of affected tissue
No surgery has been shown to permanently eradicate HPV because it is a virus
TESTING AND TREATMENT IN MEN
Visual examination of genitalia
Destruction with liquid nitrogen
Topical treatment of podophyllin (Condylox) administered by a physician
|CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS||can be mom->child|
Most frequently reported bacterial STI in US
Abnormal vaginal discharge
Burning with urination
Pain with intercourse
Vaginal bleeding between menstrual periods
Painful inflammation of the oviducts (symptomatic of PID)
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
TREATMENT - Antibiotics, bed rest, sexual abstinence and maybe surgery to remove scarring
DIAGNOSIS- Pelvic Exam, cultures, laparoscopy
men- burning pee, watery discharge, swollen testes, UTIS, epididimytis, infertility
Women: Vaginal swab, urine test
Men: Urine test, urethral swab
Both partners are administered antibiotics for cure (Doxycycline or Azithromycin).
teenage girls, men in their 20s
ejaculation not required
women- mostly asympotomatic
Painful or burning sensation with urination
Increased vaginal discharge
Severe menstrual cramps
Painful abscesses in the Bartholin's glands
SYMPTOMS IN MEN
Thick yellowish white or green discharge from the penis
Lips of the urethral opening may become inflamed and swollen
Lymph glands in the groin become enlarged and swollen
gram stain, culture of fluids
|Syphilis|| bacteria- Treponema pallidum|
can cross placenta- stillborn, premature, seizures
TEST- dark field microscope, blood test
penicillin in early stages treats it
|stages of syphilis||Stage 1: 10 days to 3 months after infection, primary syphilis appears. A painless sore called a chancre appears where the bacteria entered the body, around the genitals, inside the vagina or rectum, or on the lips or mouth. |
Stage 2: Secondary syphilis; symptoms may include a rash on the hands or feet, neck, head, or torso, wart-like growths around the genitals, and grayish sores in the mouth. Hair loss may occur. The infection will then enter a latent stage, which lacks symptoms, and can last for years.
Stage 3: Tertiary stage; can also cause severe problems with the heart, brain, and eyes, causing blindness, paralysis, brain damage, dementia, and even death.
|Trichomoniasis|| young women|
painful urination, pain during intercourse, vaginal itching and irritation, and a greenish-yellow, strong-smelling vaginal discharge.