Chapter 11 Nervous System A

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central nervous system

The______consists of the brain and spinal cord.

brain

The______is the largest and most complex part of the nervous system

cerebral hemispheres

The brain includes two______, the diencephalon, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.

diencephalon

The brain includes two cerebral hemispheres, the______, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.

brainstem

The brain includes two cerebral hemispheres, the diencephalon, the______, and the cerebellum.

cerebellum

The brain includes two cerebral hemispheres, the diencephalon, the brainstem, and the______.

brainstem

The______connects the brain and spinal cord and allows two-way communication between them.

spinal cord

The______provides two-way communication between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

cranial cavity, vertebral canal

The brain lies within the______of the skull and the spinal cord occupies the______.

meninges

______are located between the bone and the soft tissues of the nervous system and protect the brain and spinal cord.

meninges

The______have three layers.

dura mater

The outermost layer is the______and is composed of tough, white, dense connective tissue.

dura mater

Dural sinuses are channels in______.

pia mater

Denticulate ligaments are bands of______that attach spinal cord to dura mater.

epidural space

The______is between the dural sheath and the bony walls of the spinal cord and contains blood vessels.

arachnoid mater

The______is thin, weblike membrane that lacks blood vessels and is located between the dura and pia maters.

subarachnoid space

The______is between the arachnoid mater and pia mater and contains a fluid called cerebrospinal fluid.

pia mater

The______is very thin and contains many nerves and blood vessels.

pia mater

The______is attached to the surfaces of the brain and spinal cord.

ventricles

______are interconnected cavities and are located within the cerebral hemispheres and brain stem.

central canal

The ventricles are continuous with the______of the spinal cord and are filled with cerebrospinal fluid.

lateral ventricles

The largest ventricles are the______which are located in the cerebral hemispheres.

third ventricle

The______is located in the midline of the brain beneath the corpus callosum.

fourth ventricle

The______is located in the brainstem just in front of the cerebellum.

cerebral aqueduct

The______is a connection between the third and fourth ventricles.

choroids plexus

The______is a specialized mass of capillaries and functions to secrete cerebrospinal fluid.

lateral ventricles

Most of the cerebrospinal fluid arises in the______and circulates into the third ventricle, fourth ventricle, the central canal of the spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space.

cerebrospinal fluid

______is continuously absorbed into the blood.

arachnoid granulations

______are tiny, fingerlike structures that project from the subarachnoid space into the dural sinuses.

cerebrospinal fluid

______is different from blood in that it contains a greater concentration of sodium and lesser concentrations of glucose and potassium.

ionic concentration

The functions of cerebrospinal fluid are to help maintain a stable______in the CNS, and provide a pathway to the blood for wastes.

cerebrospinal fluid

Because______completely surrounds the brain and spinal cord, it protects them by absorbing forces that might otherwise jar and damage them.

multipolar neurons

The brain includes about one hundred billion______and countless branches of the axons (nerve fibers) by which these neurons communicate with each other.

dura mater

The______contains many blood vessels and nerves.

dura mater

The______attaches to the inside of the cranial cavity and forms the internal periosteum of the surrounding skull bones.

dura mater

In some regions, the______extends inward between lobes of the brain and forms supportive protective partitions.

dura mater

In some regions, the______splits into two layers, forming channels called dural sinuses.

dural sinuses

Venous blood flows through the______as it returns from the brain to vessels leading to the heart.

dural sheath

The______terminates as a blind sac at the level of the second sacral vertebrae, below the end of the spinal cord.

epidural space

The______contains blood vessels, loose connective tissue, and adipose tissue that pad the spinal cord.

arachnoid mater

The______spreads over the brain and spinal cord but generally does not dip into the grooves and depressions of their surfaces.

arachnoid mater

Many thin strands extend from the______undersurface and are attached to the pia mater.

pia mater

The______follows the contours of the brain and spinal cord contours, passing over the high areas and dipping into the depressions.

interventricular foramen

The third ventricle communicates with the lateral ventricle through the______.

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