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The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academies defines _______ as non-digestible carbohydrates that occur naturally in plant foods.

dietary fiber

The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academies defines ________ as non-digestible carbohydrate that has been either isolated from natural sources or synthesized in a lab and then added to a food product or supplement.

functional fiber

health benefits of fiber

reduces risk of colon cancer; helps manage diabetes and blood cholesterol levels; reduces risk of hemorrhoids

good source of dietary fiber

legumes, grains, and vegetables

The recommended daily intake of fiber for women is _____ grams.

25

The recommended daily intake of fiber for men is ____ grams.

38

the primary function of vitamins is to

help promote chemical reactions that take place in the body

Vitamin _____________ are fat-soluble vitamins.

A, D, E, K

_____________ are water-soluble vitamins.

Biotin, Folate, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Riboflavin, Thiamin, B-6, B-12, C

true statements about vitamins

regulate various processes within living cells, excess vitamins come out in urine

minerals

inorganic compounds needed in small amounts for the regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues and functions

anemia is associated with a deficiency in

iron

osteoporosis is associated with low intake of

calcium

the primary source of calcium in the diet is

dairy products

nutrients that help build and maintain bone density

calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K

As part of total adequate daily water intake, an adult female should drink about ______ cups of fluid.

9

As part of total adequate daily water intake, an adult male should drink about _____ cups of fluid.

13

antioxidants

help protect the body by blocking the formation and action of free radicals and repairing the damage they cause

phytochemicals

naturally occurring substance found in plant foods that may help prevent and treat chronic diseases

cruciferous vegetables

vegetables of cabbage family with flower petals of the plants in the shape of a cross (EX-cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kale, and cauliflower)

The Dietary Reference Intakes

designed to prevent nutritional deficiencies and chronic disease

case when supplements might be recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board

taking too large of a does of vitamins is bad for you

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

consume variety of nutrient-dense foods, control calorie intake, be physically active every day, increase daily intake of foods from important food groups, limit saturated and trans fat, choose good carbs, limit salt, limit alcohol consumption, keep foods safe

good strategies for reducing saturated and trans fat intake

moderation; lean meat; fat-free/low-fat milk; use vegetable oil; season with spices instead of sauces

The Food and Nutrition Board set a goal of reducing sodium intake to less than __________ mg per day.

2300

high sodium condiments include

mustard, pickles, soy sauce

Moderate alcohol intake for women is no more than ____ drink(s) per day.

1

Moderate alcohol intake for men is no more than _____ drink(s) per day.

2

portions that count as 1 ounce-equivalent of grains

1 slice of bread; 1 small muffin; 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal flakes; 1/2 cup cooked cereal, rice, grains or pasta; 1 6-inch tortilla

How many cups of vegetables per day are recommended by USDA's MyPyramid for someone on a 2000-calorie diet?

2 1/2 cups

How many cups of fruit per day are recommended by USDA's MyPyramid for someone on a 2000-calorie diet?

2 cups

vegans are likely to encounter the most difficulty in obtaining adequate intake of

calcium

two nutrients of particular concern for women are

calcium and iron

most men's diets include less-than-recommended levels of

vegetables, fruits, grains

endurance athletes may need to consume additional

carbohydrates

cooked or refrigerated foods should not be left at room temperature for more than

2 hours

TF: A diet high in dietary fiber has been shown to combat diabetes and high cholesterol levels.

true

TF: Popcorn is a whole-grain food.

true

TF: The recommended intake of fiber for adult men is 20 grams per day.

false

TF: Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble.

true

TF: Taking large doses of vitamins is safe and healthy.

false

TF: To maintain fluid balance, the average person needs to consume approximately 6 cups of water a day.

false

TF:Women who may become pregnant should take a vitamin C supplement daily.

false

TF: The Dietary Guidelines recommend a diet moderate in sugar, salt, and sodium.

true

TF: Adequate intake of sodium is 2500 mg per day.

false

TF: Following any type of vegetarian diet requires the use of dietary supplements such as fiber pills.

falsle

TF: Athletes should follow a diet with 60-65% of calories coming from protein.

false

TF: Sports drinks are a good choice as a fluid replacement for activities lasting longer than 90 minutes.

false

TF: The FDA tests dietary supplements for purity and potency.

false

TF: Crops grown as organic must meet limits on pesticide residues.

true

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