ch 12 Respiratory

Created by emmasma 

Upgrade to
remove ads

ventilation

breathing; bringing air into lungs

gas exchange

blood exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide in lungs

atmospheric pressure

pressure of the air outside of the body

intrapulmonary pressure

intra-alveolar pressure; pressure within lungs, rises and falls with breathing, but always equalizes with atmospheric pressure, can be positive, zero, or negative

subatmospheric pressure

-3 mmHg. the intrapulmonary pressure that occurs during inspiration and goes below atmospheric pressure

Boyle's law

The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.

intrapleural pressure

pressure within the pleural cavity, normally slightly less than both intrapulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure

compliance

change in volume of a hollow organ per change in pressure

surface tension

created by wet surface in alveoli; causes them to want to collapse, thus forcing air out for expiration

surfactant

substance that lowers surface tension; present in lungs to prevent the collapse of alveoli

tidal volume

volume of gas inspired and expired during an unforced respiratory cycle

total minute volume

(minute ventilation); tidal volume multiplied by breaths per minute

restrictive disorder

diseases that cause low tidal volume

obstructive disorder

disorders caused by low forced expiratory volume

Dalton's Law

States that the total pressure of a mixture of gasses is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases in the mixture.

partial pressure

pressure of each individual gas exerts in the atmosphere

Henry's Law

amount of gas that can disolve in a liquid depend on
1.temp of water- colder= more gas disolved
2. solubility of particular gas in water
3. partial pressure of the gas on the air above the water

peripheral chemoreceptors

Receptors in the carotid arteries and the aorta that monitor blood pH to help regulate ventilation rate.

central chemoreceptors

receptors in the medulla oblongata that regulate breathing

hypoventilation

inadequate ventilation; CO₂ leaving body is less than what is produced

hyperventilation

excessive ventilation; CO₂ falls below normal; more leaves the body than is produced

hypoxic drive

breathing in response to low O₂ rather than high CO₂ in blood; backup system

hemoglobin

iron-containing protein found in red blood cells that binds chemically to oxygen molecules

deoxyhemogloblin

hemoglobin not bound to oxygen molecules

oxyhemogloblin

hemoglobin bound to 4 oxygen molecules

loading/unloading

binding of oxygen to hemoglobin in lungs and later releasing of the oxygen to tissues

percent saturation

percent of hemoglobin loaded oxygen

Bohr effect

This effect describes how lower pH causes hemoglobin to bind less tightly to oxygen

2,3-BPG

reduces hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen and releases more O² to the tissues

hemoglobin A

The normal adult Hemoglobin. It develops by 6 months of age to replace Hemoglobin F

hemoglobin F

fetal hemoglobin that has a higher affinity for O² than maternal hemoglobin because it can't bind to 2, 3 bpg

carboaminohemoglobin

Small amount of CO2 entering the RBC combines reversibly with an unionized amino group of hemoglobin

HCO3

Bicarbonate, accounts for 70% of carbon dioxide carriede by blood

carbonic anhydrase

enzyme that catalyzes reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid

chloride shift

When chloride ions diffuse into RBCs as bicarbonate ions leave; this compensates to keep a balance in charge; when blood reaches lungs, bicarb ions are converted back to CO2, which is then exhaled

acid-base balance

pH of blood is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45

respiratory component

regulation of acid base balance by the lungs and breathing

metabolic component

metabolic acidosis and alkalosis; kidneys regulate concentration of free bicarbonate in blood to help maintain ph homeostasis

acidosis

a condition that occurs with increases in blood carbonic acid or with decreases in blood bicarbonate; blood pH below 7.35

alkalosis

a condition that occurs with increases in blood bicarbonate or decreases in blood carbonic acid; blood pH above 7.45

volatile acid

Can convert to gas form to be exhaled; e.g. Carbonic acid

nonvolatile acid

Metabolic acid that cannot be coverted to a Gas; e.g. Lactic acid, ketone acids

order of conducting zone branches

trachea; bronchi; bronchioles

alveoli

tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood

alveolar sacs

clusters of interconnected alveoli

inspiratory reserve volume

maximum amount of gas that can be inspired above tidal volume during forced breathing

expiratory reserve volume

maximum amount of gas that can be expelled above tidal volume during forced breathing

residual volume

volume of gas remaining in lungs after maximum expiration

lung volumes

4 nonoverlapping components of lung capacity

lung capacities

measurements that are the sum of 2 or more lung volumes

total lung capacity

total gas in lungs after maximum inspiration

vital capacity

maximum gas that can be expelled after maximum inspiration

inspiratory capacity

maximum gas inspired after normal tidal expiration

functional residual capacity

amount of gas in lungs after normal tidal expiration

Po₂

partial pressure of O₂

Po₂ & Pco₂ concentrations in pulmonary vein

Po₂- 100; Pco₂- 40

Po₂ & Pco₂ concentrations in pulmonary artery

Po₂- 40; Pco₂- 46

metabolic acidosis

nonrespiratory acids accumulating or loss of bases.;, decreased pH in blood and body tissues as a result of an upset in metabolism

metabolic alkalosis

alkalinity caused by an increase in plasma bicarbonate resulting from causes including diuresis, vomiting, or ingestion of too much sodium bicarbonate.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set