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Two common techniques you could use to generate "pure cultures"

streak and pour plate

The site where the old DNA strands separate and the new DNA strands will be synthesized is called the

Replication fork

A permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called a

Mutation

Agents that can denature microbial proteins include all of the following (moist heat, alcohol. acids, metallic ions, x rays) except

X rays

____heat is more rapidly effective and efficient compared to ____ heat

moist, dry

____is a control method that removes microorganisms rather than inhibiting or killing them

Filtration

Name the four major subdivisions of activity found in the bacterial growth curve

Lag, Loq, Stationary, decline

Lag

DNA replication

Loq

exponential growth, replicates quickly, symptoms appear

Stationary

Running out of nutrients (reached maximum)

Decline

Death of bacteria (endospores form)

Why is the normal process of bacterial chromosomal replication called the semi-conservative method of replication?

One parental strand pairs with one new strand. One strand is conserved

THe array of molecules known as ______are the mutation fighters in the cell

DNA repair enzymes

If it was not for ethylene oxide, we would not be able to use plastic Petri dishes for culturing bacteria

True

The effectiveness of soaps is due to the fact that they cause trapped bacteria to burst

False

The term aminoglycoside refers to antibiotics that are composed of amino groups and lipids

False

A septicemic state in a patient refers to the presence of a pathogenic organism in the bloodstream that is the cause of the disease

True

Name the two options or cycles that bacteriophages may excercise when infecting a host cell

Lytic cycle, lysogeny cycle

Lytic cycle

Cause cell to rupture

Lysogenic cycle

Spread of viral DNA occurs during usual prokaryotic processes

___is a halogen used in gaseous and liquid form for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage

Chlorine

X rays are known as a form of ____radiation

ionizing

X rays are known as a form of ionizing radiation because

they cause the cell to lose electrons which creates an ion

Exotoxins are

proteins

Bacteriocidal agents kill bacterial cells (t/f)

True

Free of contaminating organisms

aseptic

Symbiotic relationship benefiting both orgs

Mutualism

Parasitic org that causes disease

pathogen

Symbiotic relationship where one org derives benefit and other unharmed

Commensalism

Synthesizes oqn food from simple inorganic carbon sources

Autotroph

Sites on the chromosome to which genetic activity attributed

Locus

Bacterial product that kills other bacteria

Bacteriocin

Bacteriophage that induces lysogeny

Temperate phage

Destruction or removal of all life forms

Sterilization

Two organisms interacting resulting in a greater than additive effect

Synergism

Agent used on living objects to destroy org

Antiseptic

Stretches of DNA replicated in a discontinuous fashion

Okazaki fragment

Donor mating type in bacteria

F+

A plasmid that can transfer drug resistance

R factor

Effective agent for bacterial invasiveness

Hyaluronidase

___solution was introduced in the late nineteeth century for treating syphillis infections

salvarasan

The three types of filtration that are used for sterilization are

inorganic filtration, membrane filtration, organic filtration

In the process or autoclaving material, it is the ___ that is the sterilizing agent, not the ___.

heat, pressure

List the three basic physical requirements that must be met for successful sterilization using the autoclave

15 minutes, 121.5 C, 15 pounds per square inch

Opportuinstic pathogens

Cause disease in compromised individuals

Virulence factors include all the following except (capsules, ribosomes, exoenzymes, endotoxin, exotoxin)

Ribosomes

What are the two major drawbacks for the use of penicillin

Allergic reaction can occur, immunity to penicillin if used too much

Which is mismatched?

coagulase - fissolve fibrin clots

Which is an endotoxin?

Lipopolysaccharide

Someone who inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to others is a

Carrier

An animal, such as an arthropod, that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a

Vector

Name the three forms of bacterial recombination that may occur

Conjugation, transduction, transformation

Conjugation

by sex pili genetic material is transferred from donor (f+) to recipient (f-)

transduction

bacteriophage transmits genetic material

Transformation

DNA fragments pass through cell wall and plasma membrane of recipients. enzyme degrades one parent strand

The bacterial chromosome is found in a space in the cytoplasm called the ____

Nucleoid

Name the three derivatives of penicillin

amoxicillin, carbecillin, amphocillin

Infection occurs when

Pathogens enter and multiply in body tissues

An inanimate object that harbors and transmits a pathogen is a ____

fomite

A disease that has a steady frequency over time in a particular geographic location is an ____

endemic

Why can 1.5 mm of DNA fit into a cell that is only .5um

DNA is in a loop structure and chromosomes attach to each other at anchorage points that result in a flower structure

Discovered prontosil

Domagk

Discovered penicillin

Flemming

Father of chemotherapeutic agents

Ehrlich

First to isolate penicillin

Florey and Chain

What is the effect of UV light that kills bacterial cells?

Chromosome replication impaired

Name the 5 typical stages of an infectious disease

Incubation, prodrome, acme, decline, convalescence

incubation

the amount of time that elapses between entry of organism and appearance of symptoms

prodrome

general symptoms occur

Acme

more specfic symptoms occur

Decline

Symptoms subside, may be preceded by crisis period, then rapid recovery

convalescence

Symptoms are gone but infected host may still be a carrier

Groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene have the code for one

Amino acid

The minimum amount of microbes that will cause disease is the

infectious dose

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