What evidence is there that Echinoderms evolved from bilateral ancestors?
Their larvae has bilateral symmetry.
Small calcareous plates that make up a mesodermal endoskeleton of echinoderms.
What are the 4 functions of the water-vascular system?
Locomotion, food gathering, respiration, and excretion.
in echinoderms, the round, muscular structure on a tube foot that aids in locomotion
What is the structure of the water-vascular system in echinoderms?
The madreporite leads to a stone canal, which descends toward a ring canal around the mouth. Radial canals diverge from the ring canal.
How does sexual reproduction occur in sea stars?
Fertilization occurs externally when eggs and sperm are shed into the water.
How can sea stars reproduce asexually?
Sea stars need at least part of their ___________ to regenerate.
Name the 5 characteristic traits of chordates.
Notochord; single, dorsal, tubular nerve chord; pharyngeal pouches (gill slits) present at some life stage; endostyle (thyroid gland); postanal tail
Name the nonvertebrate chordate in subphylum Uruchordata
Sea squirts; tadpole larvae
Name the nonvertebrate chordate in subphylum Cephalochordata.
Amphioxus - lancelets
What was subphylum Vertebrata originally called?
Why was subphylum Vertebrate originally called Craniata?
Because all vertebrates have a cranium which is used to protect the brain.
Name 3 early adaptations of verterbrates.
Larger size, more active, required special modifications because of these (like increased metabolism)
What is an advantage of an endoskeleton?
It allows unlimited growth.
How did the endoskeleton evolve?
It started out as cartilage in many, and became bone in some.
What trait adapted to a powerful pump for moving water throughout the body?
Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
What is the function of eyes with lenses?
To determine distance
What is the function of lateral lines?
Detecting water vibrations.
What is the function of electroreceptors?
TO detect prey.
What is the function of the inner ears?
Equilibrium and sound reception.
Name 5 paired sensory organs.
Eyes with lenses; lateral lines; electroreceptors; inner ears; Olfactory and taste organs.
Contributes to the formation of many different structures: the cranium, pharyngeal skeleton tooth dentine, cranial nerves, ganglia, some endocrine glands, and Schwann cells.
Give rise to the olfactory epithelium, lens of the eye, taste buds.
How did the respiratory system upgrade in vertebrates?
With higher vascularized gills.
How did the circulatory system upgrade in vertebrates?
By upgrading to a better heart, and blood with hemoglobin.
How did the excretory system upgrade in vertebrates?
By upgrading to kidneys to remove metabolic wastes and regulate body ions and fluids.
Name the five characteristics of a fish.
Gills; Aquatic, Vertebrate; Appendages as fins; Scales with dermal origin
Which group of vertebrates has the most amount of different species?
What is in Class Petromyzontida?
Fish species which spend long periods of time in salt water but require freshwater to breed
What do we know about reproduction of Class Myxine?
Not much known; There is no larval stage.
What are animals in class Myxine known for?
What animals are in Class Chondricthyes?
Sharks, skates, and rays
What is the body shape of animals in Class Chondricthyes?
Type of development where young develops outside mother in an egg and receives nourishment from the egg yolk.
Refers to animals in which the young hatch from eggs that are retained in the uterus of the mother
Referring to a type of development in which the young are born alive after having been nourished in the uterus by blood from the placenta.
Name the 4 types of fins in Class Chondricthyes.
Caudal, Dorsal, Pelvic, Anal
Ampullae of Lorenzini
The electroreceptors on sharks.
Special receptor organs that make up the lateral-line system.
used in association with the swim bladder. Vibrations go to the ear and help them hear
What are the gills made up of?
lamellae, operculum, ram ventilation
Salt absorbing cells for organisms in freshwater.
Salt secreting cells for organisms in marine envorionments.
How do fish reproduce?
migrating from fresh water to the sea to spawn
bone that begins as hyaline cartilage that is subsequently replaced by bone tissue
Modern bony fishes
The copulatory embrace of frogs or toads in which the male fertilizes eggs as they leave the female's body.
What were the first 2 signs that animals would move from water to land?
Appendages to become useful on land to upport the body; Swim bladder to become lungs
Where are (Order Gymnophiora) Caecilians located?
What animals represent Order Urodeia?
What animals represent Caecilians?
Describe the reproduction of salamanders.
Spermatophores are released into the water and a female recovers them into her cloaca.
When adults keep some characteristics of the larval form.
Describe how Urodeians go through life in the aquatic stage?
Describe how Urodeans go through the terrestrial life stage?
They skip the aquatic stage.
Describe how Urodeians go through the ancestral life stage?
Metamorphosis; They have aquatic larvae and terrestrial adult forms.
How do Urodeians respire?
Through lungs, or vascular webs in skin.
What are the 3 major families of frogs?
Ranidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae
Describe the type of habitat required for frogs?
Very wet habitat. Damp forests or ponds, streams, or lakes.
Describe positive-pressure breathers.
They have to take a gulp of air in order to breath.
Describe feeding of larvae and adults of frogs and toads.
In the larvae form, they are herbacious; in the adult form, they are predacious.
First sign of amniotic origin.
Bringing the "pond" with them.
Innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus
a membrane sac that stores wastes and is the site for gas exchange
outermost layer of the fetal membrane
Name four derived characteristics of amniotes.
Thicker skin, more waterproof, rid ventilation from the lungs, amniotic egg