Formation of cavities
outer cells secrete BMPs to promote death.
Formation of digits
Kill cells between digits. TUNEL staining shows areas of cell death. BMP7 ~> MSX1 ~| FGF~> cell death
FGFr consitutivley active; causes human syndactyl.
outflow of heart; two chambers with a single outflow is remodeled to 4 with a dual outflow. blocking caspase activity leads to dual outflow from the RV only
Y chromosome produces androgen which enhance wolffian ducts and MIS which inhibit the mullerian ducts. People are naturally women without testes.
Regulation of cell number
Decrease number of oocytes in quality control, turner syndrome leads to very few oocytes.
Also results in the generation of the correct number of neurons
Production of Lens
Necessary to digest all organelles/cells in eye to leave the lens see-through. However, BCL-2 ~| apoptosis and leads to cloudy lens
Huge increases in cell death in limbs; interferes with capillary growth in new limbs and causes their death.
Overview apoptosis Vs necrosis
Apoptotic have very clear 200bp DNA laddering, bleb and fall apart, due not cause inflammation, shrink, rely on cytochrome C induction
FAS allows BIM and BAX into mitochondria.
BIM displaces BCL2 from BAK
BAX and BAK make a sexy pore ~> 9 ~> 3
TNF ~> FADD ~> 8 ~> 3
Cystein aspartases. Activation via cleavages; involved in only apoptosis.
AFAF1 and cytochromeC and activate
BCL2 inhibits cytochromeC and BAK