Module 24-28

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encoding failure

After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Adam's memory difficulty most clearly illustrates:

flashbulb

Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they heard the news of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy. This best illustrates ________ memory.

getting information out of memory storage.

The process of retrieval refers to

short-term

After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his ________ memory.

retrieval.

The process of getting information out of memory is called:

working memory

The difficulty of recalling the melody of a familiar song while listening to a different song best illustrates the limited capacity of:

effortful processing

The extensive rehearsal necessary to encode nonsense syllables best illustrates:

the serial position effect

At a block party, Cyndi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she can only remember the names of the first three and last two neighbors. Her experience illustrates:

semantic encoding.

Although Jordan could not recall the exact words of a poem he had recently heard, he clearly remembered the meaning of the poem. This best illustrates the importance of:

acoustic encoding

It is easier to remember "what sobriety conceals, alcohol reveals" than to recall "what sobriety conceals, alcohol unmasks." This best illustrates the value of

a mnemonic device

Employing the single word "HOMES" to remember the names of North America's five Great Lakes best illustrates the use of

automatic processing

When you hear familiar words in your native language, it is virtually impossible not to register the meanings of the words. This best illustrates the importance of:

rehearsal

An understanding of the spacing effect provides insight into effective strategies for:

semantic encoding

Ebbinghaus observed that it is much easier to learn meaningful material than to learn nonsense material. This best illustrates the advantage of:

visual encoding

The method of loci relies heavily on the use of

chunking

The combination of individual letters into familiar words enables you to remember more of the letters in this sentence. This best illustrates the value of

long-term potentiation

Which of the following is believed to be the synaptic basis for learning and memory?

12 seconds

Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short-term memories for three consonants almost completely decay in as short a time as:

amydala

Memories of emotional events are especially likely to be facilitated by activation of the

explicit memory and implicit memory

Mr. Nydam suffers amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between:
a. short-term memory and long-term memory.

cerebellum

Rabbits fail to learn a conditioned eye-blink response when the ______ is temporarily deactivated during the process of training.

iconic

For a fraction of a second after the lightning flash disappeared, Ileana retained a vivid mental image of its ragged edges. Her experience most clearly illustrates the nature of what memory?

short-term

When you have to make a long-distance call, dialing an unfamiliar area code plus a seven-digit number, you are likely to have trouble retaining the just-looked-up number. This best illustrates the limited capacity of ________ memory.

long-term potentaition

the increase in synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known as

a conditioned fear of guns

Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory?

hippocampus

Certain patients with amnesia are incapable of recalling activities, yet they can be conditioned to blink their eyes in response to a specific sound. They have most likely suffered damage to the:

recognition

A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer from a displayed list of options is known as a measure of

retrieval cues

The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls experiences with former teachers who were warm and generous. This best illustrates that emotional states can be

priming

Hearing the word "rabbit" may lead people to spell the spoken word "hair" as "h-a-r-e." This best illustrates the outcome of a process known as:

eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or event.

Déjà vu refers to the:

repression

Negative recall primed by distressing emotions most clearly illustrates:

mood-congruent memory

Negative recall primed by distressing emotions most clearly illustrates:

recall; recognition

Fill-in-the-blank test questions measure ________; matching concepts with their definitions measures ________.

priming

In an effort to recall his early life experiences, Aaron formed vivid mental images of the various rooms in his childhood home. Aaron was engaging in the process of

depressed

Lars was feeling depressed at the time he read a chapter of his history textbook. Lars is likely to recall best the contents of that chapter when he is:

mood-congruent memory.

Whenever Valerie experiences intense feelings of fear, she is overwhelmed with childhood memories of her abusive parents. Valerie's experience best illustrates

proactive interference

During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates:

repression

Mrs. McBride can't consciously recall how frequently she criticizes her children because it would be too anxiety-arousing to do so. Sigmund Freud would have suggested that her poor memory illustrates:

the misinformation effect

After Teresa was verbally threatened by someone in a passing car, she was questioned as to whether she recognized the man who was driving the car. Several hours later, Teresa mistakenly recalled that the driver was a male rather than a female. Teresa's experience best illustrates:

source amnesia

Recalling something that you had once merely imagined happening as something you had directly experienced best illustrates:

misinformation efffect

When memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus was an adolescent, her uncle incorrectly insisted that as a child she had found her own mother's drowned body. Loftus herself later falsely recollected finding the body. This best illustrates:

retrieval failure.

While taking the final exam in her American history class, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the first president of the United States. Her difficulty most clearly illustrates:

motivated forgetting

Although Ron typically smokes two packs of cigarettes a day, he recalls smoking little more than a pack a day. This poor memory best illustrates:

memory construction

The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the processes of encoding and retrieval involve:

source amnesia

Several months after watching a science fiction movie about spaceship travel and alien abductions, Steve began to remember that he had been abducted by aliens and personally subjected to many of the horrors portrayed in the movie. His mistaken recall best illustrates

becoming aware of what you still need to learn

Answering practice test questions about textbook material you have studied is a useful strategy for:

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