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5 Written Questions

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Somites ~> Axial
    Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
    Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
    Monocyte ~> osteoclasts
  2. Runx2 ~> IHH ~> Proliferation
    Twist inhibits Runx2 as well
    However, IHH also induces PTHrP which inhibits IHH.
    This elongates the proliferative stage so you have enough cells before entering hypertrophy.
  3. PTHrP mutation in receptor
    Severe dwarfism.
    But aren't little people soooooo cute?
  4. Runx2 ~> osteocalcin ~> osteoblast.
    Twist inhibits Runx2
    without it, no bone!
    (Runx2 is also for chondrocytes)
  5. Via sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.

4 True/False Questions

  1. Cleidocranial dysplasiaRunx2 haploinsufficiency
    osteoblasts don't form and you have weak bones, no clavicle, and gap in skull

          

  2. Basic bone cell typesInactivated RSK2.
    ATF4 isn't turned on
    can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
    treated with high protein diet

          

  3. Osteoclast MaturationFrom monocytes
    Osteoblasts secrete both OPG and RANKL
    OPG binds and inhibits RANKL
    RANKL causes osteoclast maturation

          

  4. neurofibromatosisInactivated RSK2.
    ATF4 isn't turned on
    can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
    treated with high protein diet

          

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