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5 Written questions

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Somites ~> Axial
    Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
    Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
    Monocyte ~> osteoclasts
  2. VEGF
    Osteoclasts are brought in with blood vessels (since they are monocytes after all)
    Osteoblasts also migrate from the bone collar to trabeculae
  3. Runx2 haploinsufficiency
    osteoblasts don't form and you have weak bones, no clavicle, and gap in skull
  4. Chondrocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast
    Growth Formation Resorption
  5. Runx2 ~> osteocalcin ~> osteoblast.
    Twist inhibits Runx2
    without it, no bone!
    (Runx2 is also for chondrocytes)

4 True/False questions

  1. Coffin-LowryRegulator of osteocalcin promoter
    activated by RSK2 kinase
    knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
    Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)


  2. neurofibromatosisInactivated RSK2.
    ATF4 isn't turned on
    can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
    treated with high protein diet


  3. Osteoclast MaturationFrom monocytes
    Osteoblasts secrete both OPG and RANKL
    OPG binds and inhibits RANKL
    RANKL causes osteoclast maturation


  4. Jansen blomstrands chrondroplaysiaVia sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.


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