5 Written questions
5 Multiple choice questions
- Somites ~> Axial
Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
Monocyte ~> osteoclasts
Osteoclasts are brought in with blood vessels (since they are monocytes after all)
Osteoblasts also migrate from the bone collar to trabeculae
- Runx2 haploinsufficiency
osteoblasts don't form and you have weak bones, no clavicle, and gap in skull
- Chondrocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast
Growth Formation Resorption
- Runx2 ~> osteocalcin ~> osteoblast.
Twist inhibits Runx2
without it, no bone!
(Runx2 is also for chondrocytes)
4 True/False questions
Coffin-Lowry → Regulator of osteocalcin promoter
activated by RSK2 kinase
knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)
neurofibromatosis → Inactivated RSK2.
ATF4 isn't turned on
can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
treated with high protein diet
Osteoclast Maturation → From monocytes
Osteoblasts secrete both OPG and RANKL
OPG binds and inhibits RANKL
RANKL causes osteoclast maturation
Jansen blomstrands chrondroplaysia → Via sox9.
Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.