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5 Written questions

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Chondrocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast
    Growth Formation Resorption
  2. Somites ~> Axial
    Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
    Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
    Monocyte ~> osteoclasts
  3. Regulator of osteocalcin promoter
    activated by RSK2 kinase
    knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
    Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)
  4. Delay: Msx2, Runx2 haploinsufficiencies
    Acceleration: FGF, MSX2 activating mutations. twist haploinsufficiency
  5. Runx2 ~> osteocalcin ~> osteoblast.
    Twist inhibits Runx2
    without it, no bone!
    (Runx2 is also for chondrocytes)

4 True/False questions

  1. Vascularization of boneVia sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.

          

  2. Osteoclast MaturationFrom monocytes
    Osteoblasts secrete both OPG and RANKL
    OPG binds and inhibits RANKL
    RANKL causes osteoclast maturation

          

  3. Three stages of bone developmentSomites ~> Axial
    Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
    Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
    Monocyte ~> osteoclasts

          

  4. Proliferation of chrondrocytesVia sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.

          

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