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5 Written questions

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. over-activated RSK2.
    Too much ATF4 ~> osteoclacin ~> too many osteoblasts
  2. Runx2 ~> IHH ~> Proliferation
    Twist inhibits Runx2 as well
    However, IHH also induces PTHrP which inhibits IHH.
    This elongates the proliferative stage so you have enough cells before entering hypertrophy.
  3. From monocytes
    Osteoblasts secrete both OPG and RANKL
    OPG binds and inhibits RANKL
    RANKL causes osteoclast maturation
  4. Somites ~> Axial
    Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
    Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
    Monocyte ~> osteoclasts
  5. Patterning ~> Skeletogenesis ~> Homeostasis
    Dyostoses Dysplasia
    Lethal Lethal 50% population problems

4 True/False questions

  1. Vascularization of boneVia sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.

          

  2. ATF4Inactivated RSK2.
    ATF4 isn't turned on
    can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
    treated with high protein diet

          

  3. Jansen blomstrands chrondroplaysiaVia sox9.
    Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.

          

  4. Osteoblast DifferentiationFrom monocytes
    Osteoblasts secrete both OPG and RANKL
    OPG binds and inhibits RANKL
    RANKL causes osteoclast maturation

          

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