← Skeletal Growth Test
5 Written Questions
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- Runx2 haploinsufficiency
osteoblasts don't form and you have weak bones, no clavicle, and gap in skull
- over-activated RSK2.
Too much ATF4 ~> osteoclacin ~> too many osteoblasts
- Delay: Msx2, Runx2 haploinsufficiencies
Acceleration: FGF, MSX2 activating mutations. twist haploinsufficiency
- Somites ~> Axial
Lateral plate mesoderm ~> appendicular
Cranial neural crest ~> craniofacial
Monocyte ~> osteoclasts
- Chondrocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast
Growth Formation Resorption
4 True/False Questions
Coffin-Lowry → Inactivated RSK2.
ATF4 isn't turned on
can't import AA or fully differentiate osteoblasts
treated with high protein diet
Proliferation of chrondrocytes → Via sox9.
Haploinsufficiency leads to dwarfism.
ATF4 → Regulator of osteocalcin promoter
activated by RSK2 kinase
knockout leads to osteogenesis (smaller/thinner bone)
Without, have trouble importing amino acids (high protein diet can fix)
Osteoclast Maturation → From monocytes
Osteoblasts secrete both OPG and RANKL
OPG binds and inhibits RANKL
RANKL causes osteoclast maturation