become similar to one's environment; to absorb into the culture of a larger population
right to claim something; right to benefits;
displaying a sense of being better than others
1. holds the final authority over social, economic, and political matters within its territory
2. having ultimate power within its own territory
3. neither subordinate nor responsible to any other authority
a formal agreement between two or more sovereign nation-states
relinquish possession or control over; give up; give over
to move from one place to settle in another area
a member of the Algonquian people of Rhode Island and Massachusetts who greeted the Pilgrims
1. Separatists from England
2. landed in the New World (Massachusetts) with their families (1620)
3. proved that people could live in the New World
English Protestants who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629.
1. Founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London
2. The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607
3. Many wanted only to look for gold rather than farm.
1. white man who lived and fought amongst the Native Americans
2. protested against hostility towards Indians
when whites in Montana tried to build a road connecting a fort and a mining center through the buffalo range of the Sioux, he led a group of western Sioux and they harassed the soldiers and construction party so much that the road could not be used.
1. Cherokee chief who went to court in Georgia to protect the Cherokees' right to own their own land when the government gave the land to new settlers
2. Wrote the Cherokee Constitution using the US Constitution as a guide
4. owned a few slaves given to him by his mentor and friend, Major John Ridge
Major John Ridge
1. rich Indian who advocated Cherokee sovereignty
2. privately negotiated a treaty selling Cherokee land (5 million)
3. Fought in the American Revolutionary War on the side of the British
5. owned slaves
1. Third president of the United States
2. Chosen to write the Declaration of Independence to tell the king why Americans no longer wanted to belong to Britain
1. 7th President of the U.S.; Seen as a war hero
2. President that forced the Indian Removal Act
3. Felt Indians stood in the way of progress 4. Forced Indians onto the Trail of Tears 5. Ignored Supreme Court's protection of the northwest Native Americans
6. Known as "Old Hickory" because of his toughness and ties to the outdoors. Also known as a president for the common man. 7. Bought Louisiana territory from Napolean;
1. A program instituted and funded by the government that attempted to "civilize" the Native American population so that they could live amongst white Americans.
2. This program loaned Natives money to supplies to farm and grow crops.
3. Many could not pay back the loans and this allowed the government to seize their property and obtain more native lands.
1. Established by the Puritans
2. Villages in which the Indians were supposed to adopt English customs and learn the fundamentals of Puritan religion.
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies (1756)
1. British deeply in debt partly due to French & Indian War.
2. English Parliament placed a tax on sugar, coffee, wines, refined sugar and molasses.
3. Colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors. (1764)
Indian Removal Act
1. authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi.
2. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
3. Passed in 1830
1. a war between the colonies and Great Britain to determine whether or not the colonies would be free from Great Britain's rule
2. The colonies won and gained their independence
1. North American Indian leader
2. chief of the Wampanoag tribe
3. negotiator of peace treaty with the Pilgrims 1621
4. father of King Philip.
1. English colonial administrator who traveled to America on the Mayflower and served as the first governor of the Plymouth Colony.
2. Learned Algonquin; brought cattle to New England
3. Close with Massasoit Indians
4. wrote book Good News From New England.
1. Native American chief who led the Wampanoag tribe to fight the New England colonists
2. his head was publicly displayed on a pike in Plymouth
3. Also known as Metacom
King Phillip's War
1. War between the Native American tribes (Pequat, Narragansett, Wampanoag, Nipmuk) of New England and British colonists
2. took place from 1675-1676.
3. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers.
4. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives.
5. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.
Declaration of Independence
1. This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776.
2. It established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain.
3. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
majority of this document
4. stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
1. The document that set up our current framework for government
2. written in 1787 (ratified in 1788).
3. The "Supreme law of the land."
1. Inspired by and patterned after the U.S. Constitution
2. said they were not under any other law
3. Georgia saw the Cherokees as in Georgia and were under Georgia law
1. adopted "white" customs including dress, some were wealthy farm owners and cattle ranchers
2. had their own language and newspaper; established its own constitution
3. fought for sovereignty and won under Supreme Court ruling
Sand Creek Massacre
1. In Colorado territory in 1864, U.S army colonel John M. Chivington led a surprise attack on a peaceful Cheyenne settlement along Sand Creek River.
2. Under the leadership of Chief Black Kettle the Cheyenne tribe tried to surrender. First he waved the America Flag and the White flag of surrender, but Chivington ignored the gestures.
3. The U.S army killed about 200 Cheyenne during this massacre.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles -to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
1. The second largest tribe in the southeastern United States, occupying an area that includes present-day Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana
2. A prominent and "civilized" tribe relying primarily on farming; fought the British in the American Revolution and later they fought with Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans
3. first tribe to be forcibly removed from their land and onto Indian Territory in 1830.
4. They denounced Andrew Jackson "...who said he would plant a stake and draw a line around us, that never should be passed."
Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
1. A treaty that gave more than 7.5 million acres (10,423,130 acres) of Choctaw land to the state of Mississippi and made them move off of their native land onto "Indian territory"
2. Choctaws had to migrate west of the Mississippi River.
Treaty of New Echota
1. a small group of Cherokees (500/17,000), led by Major John Ridge, agreed to sign a removal treaty
2. Jackson argued that this treaty gave him the legal power to remove all the Cherokee from Georgia,
4. Exchanged their land in Georgia for land in Oklahoma
5. Received 5 million dollars for the nation
6. The selling of land was against the rules of the Cherokee nation (they were not allowed to sell their land)
7. Sealed the fate of the Cherokees
8. Was the reason for the murder of the Ridges and Elias Buttonnot.
1. an American novelist and historian.
2. His most famous work, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970) details some of the violence and oppression suffered by Native Americans at the hands of American expansionism.
1. an academic, historian, professor, and author.
2. Born in Oahu, Hawaii
3. His work addresses the experiences of minorities in America
4. Explored the patterns, stories, and causes of racism within America.
1. First President of the United States.
2. Virginian, patriot, general, and president. 3. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence.
4. Became a war hero during the French and Indian War.
French and Indian War
1. Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley
2. The English defeated French in1763.
3. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
4. Was called the French and Indian War because the Indians fought alongside the French, NOT because they fought against the French
1. Leader of the Cheyenne after 1854 who led efforts to resist American settlements from Kansas to Colorado.
2. He was a peacemaker who survived the Sand Creek Massacre but was killed by an army attack led by General George Custer.
1. The belief that America had the God-given right and duty to expand across the continent, set of ideas used to justify American expansion in the 1840s
2. A belief that claimed economic necessity, a need for national security and a justification of the feeling/actions of being racial superiority,