A form of energy that can travel through space.
The direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
A form of energy with wavelengths that are longer than visible light.
A form of energy with wavelengths that are shorter than visible light.
Reflection of light in all directions
The process by which heat is trapped in the atmosphere by water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases that form a "blanket" around the earth
The total energy of a substance's particles due to their movement or vibration; also, the energy of motion in the molecules of a substance.
The average amount of energy of motion in the molecules of a substance
An instrument used to measure temperature, consisting of a thin, glass tube with a bulb on one end that contains a liquid, usually mercury or alcohol.
the movement of thermal energy from one substance to another.
The transfer of heat through direct physical contact.
The transfer of heat by movement of currents within a fluid.
The horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure.
An instrument used to measure wind speed.
Increased cooling caused by the wind.
Wind that blows over short distances.
The flow of air from an ocean or lake to the land.
The flow of air from land to a body of water.
Sea and land breezes over a large region that change direction with the seasons.
Winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances
The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
The distance north or south from the equator, measured in degrees.
Bands of high-speed winds about 10 kilometers above Earth's surface.
The process that occurs when vaporization takes place only on the surface of a liquid; also, the process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid, such as water, absorb enough energy to change to a gaseous state, such as water vapor.
A measure of the amount of water vapor in the air.
The percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air can hold at that temperature.
An instrument used to measure relative humidity, consisting of a wet-bulb thermometer and a dry-bulb thermometer.
The change from the gaseous to the liquid state of matter; also, the process by which a gas, such as water vapor, changes to a liquid, such as water.
The temperature at which condensation begins.
Clouds that form less than 2 kilometers above the ground and look like fluffy, rounded piles of cotton.
Clouds that form in flat layers.
Wispy, feathery clouds made of mostly ice crystals that form at high levels, above about 6 kilometers.
Forms of water such as rain, snow, sleet, or hail that fall from clouds and reach Earth's surface.
An instrument used to measure the amount of precipitation, consisting of an open-ended container topped by a collecting funnel and having a collecting tube and measuring scale inside.
A water shortage caused by long periods of low precipitation in a particular area.