PSYCH 220

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1. On average, children grow _____ inches per year during middle and late childhood.
A. 1 to 2
B. 2 to 3
C. 5 to 7
D. 7 to 10

B. 2 to 3

2. During elementary school years, most children double their:
A. height.
B. weight.
C. muscle-to-fat ratio.
D. strength capabilities.

D. strength capabilities.

3. Advances in the _____ of the brain are linked to children's ____.
A. parietal lobe; sharper color and peripheral vision
B. occipital lobe; better spatial skills
C. prefrontal cortex; improved attention, reasoning, and cognitive control
D. temporal lobe; eye-hand coordination and pincer grasp

C. prefrontal cortex; improved attention, reasoning, and cognitive control

4. Which of the following is true of overweight children?
A. Recently the increase in child obesity in the U.S. has seen a significant jump.
B. In many countries, girls are more likely than boys to be overweight.
C. Non-Latino White children are more likely to be overweight than African American and Latino children.
D. Boys are more likely to be overweight than girls in the U.S.

B. In many countries, girls are more likely than boys to be overweight.

5. Cardiovascular disease is _____ in children.
A. uncommon
B. highly prevalent
C. increasing
D. on the decline

A. uncommon

6. A recent study found that children with a high body mass index and waist circumference are at risk for _____ a constellation of factors, including obesity, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes.
A. ICF syndrome
B. hyperventilation syndrome
C. severe acute respiratory syndrome
D. metabolic syndrome

D. metabolic syndrome

7. The incidence of cancer in children has _____ in recent years.
A. been linked to obesity
B. increased dramatically
C. slightly increased
D. decreased dramatically

C. slightly increased

8. _____ are characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells.
A. Blood and bone cancers
B. All child cancers
C. Skin and bone cancers
D. Skin and blood cancers

B. All child cancers

9. One in every _____ children in the United States develops cancer before the age of 19.
A. 75
B. 130
C. 250
D. 330

D. 330

10. Approximately _____ of all children from 3 to 21 years of age in the United States receive special education or related services.
A. 5 percent
B. 14 percent
C. 20 percent
D. 32 percent

B. 14 percent

11. A learning disability:
A. is primarily the result of environmental disadvantage.
B. is primarily the result of mental retardation.
C. is mainly due to cultural or economic disadvantage.
D. is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities.

D. is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities.

12. _____ is characterized by severe impairments in reading and spelling ability.
A. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
B. Dysgraphia
C. Dyslexia
D. Dyscalculia

C. Dyslexia

13. Interventions with children who have a learning disability often focus on:
A. improving math ability.
B. improving right and left brain functioning.
C. improving writing skills.
D. improving reading ability.

D. improving reading ability.

14. ADHD occurs _____ more in boys than in girls.
A. two to three times
B. four to nine times
C. ten times
D. marginally

B. four to nine times

15. A recent study revealed that peak thickness of the cerebral cortex _____ in children with ADHD.
A. occurs in adulthood
B. never occurs
C. occurs three years later
D. occurs two years earlier

C. occurs three years later

16. These disorders consist of serious, persistent problems that involve relationships, aggression, depression, and fears associated with personal or school matters, as well as other inappropriate socioemotional characteristics. Approximately 8 percent of children who have a disability and require an individualized education plan fall into this classification.
A. Autism
B. ADHD
C. Emotional and behavioral disorders
D. Learning disorders

C. Emotional and behavioral disorders

17. _____ is a severe developmental autism spectrum disorder that has its onset in the first three years of life and includes deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
A. Asperger syndrome
B. ADHD
C. Autistic disorder
D. ICF syndrome

C. Autistic disorder

18. _____ is a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder in which the child has relatively good verbal language, milder nonverbal language problems, and a restricted range of interests and relationships.
A. Asperger syndrome
B. ADHD
C. Autistic disorder
D. ICF syndrome

A. Asperger syndrome

19. Boys are _____ as likely to have autism spectrum disorders as girls are.
A. half
B. equally
C. twice
D. four times

D. four times

20. A(n) _____ is a written statement that spells out a program that is specifically tailored for the student with a disability.
A. tailored education plan (TEP)
B. individualized education plan (IEP)
C. exclusive education plan (EEP)
D. disabilities education plan (DEP)

B. individualized education plan (IEP)

21. Piaget proposed that the concrete operational stage lasts from approximately _____ years of age.
A. 3 to 5
B. 5 to 7
C. 7 to 11
D. 10 to 13

C. 7 to 11

22. The _____ theory states that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: verbatim memory trace, and gist.
A. local fluff
B. fuzzy trace
C. verbatim trace
D. fuzzy matter

B. fuzzy trace

23. Thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating evidence are all parts of:
A. critical thinking.
B. metacognition.
C. cognitive monitoring.
D. control processes.

A. critical thinking.

24. The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems is called ____.
A. spontaneity
B. congruency
C. elasticity
D. creativity

D. creativity

25. The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:
A. divergent thinking.
B. convergent thinking.
C. expressive thinking.
D. productive thinking.

A. divergent thinking.

26. _____ involves knowing about knowing.
A. Megacognition
B. Teradata
C. Metacognition
D. Metadata

C. Metacognition

27. Michael Pressley believes that the key to education is helping students:
A. to develop social skills.
B. to learn creativity.
C. to learn a repertoire of strategies for problem solving.
D. to formulate career plans.

C. to learn a repertoire of strategies for problem solving.

28. Mental age (MA) is:
A. the age that an individual mentally identifies himself at.
B. the age at which an individual attains cognitive maturity.
C. an individual's level of mental development relative to others.
D. an individual's age at the time of peak cortical thickness.

C. an individual's level of mental development relative to others.

29. Who developed the concept of mental age?
A. Alfred Binet
B. William Stern
C. David Wechsler
D. Robert J. Sternberg

A. Alfred Binet

30. Which of the following is a type of intelligence identified by Howard Gardner?
A. Intrapersonal
B. Analytical
C. Practical
D. Creative

A. Intrapersonal

31. Which of the following statements about IQ and intelligence is true?
A. Modifications in environment have no impact on one's IQ score.
B. Schooling has been shown to have no influence over intelligence.
C. IQ scores have been slowly decreasing around the world.
D. IQ scores have been rapidly increasing around the world.

D. IQ scores have been rapidly increasing around the world.

32. Those individuals who have IQs of 55 to 70 are classified as _____ mentally retarded.
A. mildly
B. moderately
C. severely
D. profoundly

A. mildly

33. What percentage of mentally retarded are considered moderately retarded?
A. About 89 percent
B. About 6 percent
C. About 3.5 percent
D. Less than 1 percent

B. About 6 percent

34. About _____ percent of the mentally retarded are in the severe category, with IQs of ____.
A. 1; 25 to 35
B. 6; 40 to 54
C. 3.5; 25 to 39
D. 10; 15 to 25

C. 3.5; 25 to 39

35. Organic retardation is caused by:
A. a genetic disorder or brain damage.
B. being raised by poorly educated parents.
C. an impoverished intellectual environment.
D. traumatic experiences in early childhood.

A. a genetic disorder or brain damage.

36. Children with above-average intelligence and a superior talent for something are called:
A. gifted.
B. creative.
C. perspicacious.
D. sagacious.

A. gifted.

37. _____ is knowledge about language, such as knowing what a preposition is or the ability to discuss the sounds of a language, and allows children to think about their language, understand what words are, and even define them.
A. Metacognition
B. Metalinguistic awareness
C. Metapragmatics
D. Morphology

B. Metalinguistic awareness

38. This leading developmental neuroscientist and his colleagues recently proposed that the prefrontal cortex likely orchestrates the functions of many other brain regions during development.

Mark Johnson

39. This theorist distinguished between convergent thinking and divergent thinking.

J.P. Guilford

40. This theorist described three criteria that characterize gifted children, whether in art, music, or academic domains.

Ellen Winner

41. This is a disability in which individuals consistently show problems in one or more of these areas: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

42. The cognitive ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension.

Seriation

43. A kind of thinking which produces many different answers to the same questions.

Divergent Thinking

47. During the elementary years, a child's self-understanding includes increasing reference to all of the following EXCEPT:
A. psychological characteristics.
B. social comparison.
C. social aspects.
D. physical characteristics.

D. physical characteristics.

48. Which of the following terms refers to self-evaluations in the different domains of an individual's life?
A. self-concept
B. self-esteem
C. self-awareness
D. self-control

A. self-concept

49. Self-esteem refers to _____ self-evaluation while self-concept refers to _____ self-evaluation.
A. global; domain-specific
B. personal; academic
C. subjective; objective
D. interpersonal; intrapersonal

A. global; domain-specific

50. Research reported in 2003 shows that individuals with high self-esteem:
A. are rarely likely to be bullies.
B. can be either prosocial or antisocial in their behavior
C. always try to help others.
D. are unpredictable.

B. can be either prosocial or antisocial in their behavior

51. Albert Bandura called the belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes __.
A. self-efficacy
B. self-confidence
C. self-esteem
D. self-awareness

A. self-efficacy

52. Erik Erikson's fourth stage of development, appearing during middle and late childhood, is called:
A. industry versus inferiority.
B. trust versus mistrust.
C. ego integrity versus ego despair.
D. ego autonomy versus ego independence.

A. industry versus inferiority.

53. Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he makes ever works properly. According to Erik Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing a sense of:
A. stagnation.
B. inferiority.
C. shame and doubt.
D. identity diffusion.

B. inferiority.

54. _____ is the highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
A. Postconventional reasoning
B. Conventional reasoning
C. Preconventional reasoning
D. Universal reasoning

A. Postconventional reasoning

55. Kohlberg emphasized perspective taking and _____ as critical aspects of the social stimulation that challenges children to change their moral reasoning.
A. sibling interaction
B. peer interaction
C. parental influence
D. teacher influence

B. peer interaction

56. Which of the following would NOT be considered an arbitrary rule?
A. eating soup with a spoon
B. raising your hand in class to ask a question
C. shutting off your cell phone ringer while in church
D. not lying to your boss about your late report

D. not lying to your boss about your late report

57. Moral rules are widely accepted, somewhat impersonal and:
A. arbitrary.
B. obligatory.
C. determined by social consensus.
D. based on universal principles.

B. obligatory.

58. At what age do children begin to express objective ideas about fairness?
A. at around 4 years
B. at around 6 years
C. at around 8 years
D. at around 10 years

B. at around 6 years

59. Which of the following characteristics is ascribed to males according to our common stereotypes?
A. nurturant
B. aggressive
C. lower sense of self-esteem
D. uninterested in power

B. aggressive

60. Broad categories that reflect general impressions and beliefs about males and females are known as:
A. gender identities.
B. gender constancies.
C. gender stereotypes.
D. gender roles.

C. gender stereotypes.

61. Comparing the math and visuospatial abilities of males and females show that:
A. most males outperform the majority of females.
B. most females outperform the majority of males.
C. there is no significant difference between the sexes pg. .
D. there is considerable overlap between the sexes on these skills.

A. most males outperform the majority of females.

62. In which of the following areas has it been found that girls exhibit better skills than boys?
A. spatial skills
B. verbal skills
C. physical skills
D. mathematical skills

B. verbal skills

63. Boys are more _____ aggressive, whereas girls are more _____ aggressive.
A. outwardly; inwardly
B. physically; emotionally
C. verbally; physically
D. physically; verbally

D. physically; verbally

64. Across childhood and adolescence, research suggests that:
A. girls engage in more prosocial behavior.
B. boys engage in more prosocial behavior.
C. boys are more likely to share.
D. girls are more likely to share.

A. girls engage in more prosocial behavior.

65. Cassandra is assertive and nurturant. She could be described as __.
A. feminine
B. masculine
C. aggressive
D. androgynous

D. androgynous

66. Middle childhood is a period in which some control is transferred from parent to child. This process involves __.
A. deregulation
B. socioregulation
C. coregulation
D. bioregulation

C. coregulation

67. Which of the following statements about stepfamilies is NOT true?
A. The largest number of stepfamilies are preceded by death of a spouse.
B. In stepmother families, the father usually has custody of his children.
C. In stepfather families, the mother usually has custody of her children.
D. In blended families, both parents bring children from previous marriages to the newly formed stepfamily.

A. The largest number of stepfamilies are preceded by death of a spouse.

68. _____ percent of children in stepfamilies show adjustment problems.
A. Fifty
B. Forty
C. Twenty-five
D. Twenty

C. Twenty-five

69. The term that describes the extent to which children are liked or disliked by their peer group is:
A. psychometric status.
B. socioeconomic status.
C. popularity status.
D. sociometric status.

D. sociometric status.

70. All of the following are peer statuses EXCEPT __.
A. rejected
B. neglected
C. controversial
D. conforming

D. conforming

1. Kenneth Dodge argues that children go through five steps in processing information about their social world. Which of the following is NOT one of those steps?
A. decoding social cues
B. interpreting social cues
C. selecting an optimal response
D. reflecting on social response choices

D. reflecting on social response choices

72. In a national survey of more than 15,000 sixth- through tenth-grade students, nearly ______ of the students reported experiencing bullying as either a victim or a perpetrator.
A. one-half
B. two-thirds
C. one-third
D. one-quarter

C. one-third

73. Children who are bullied have increased feelings of __.
A. loneliness
B. hostility
C. pessimism
D. helplessness

A. loneliness

74. Children's friendships are typically characterized by:
A. familiarity.
B. intimacy.
C. similarity.
D. compatibility.

C. similarity.

75. Which of the following is NOT a function of childhood friendships?
A. companionship
B. cultural regulation
C. social comparison
D. intimacy/affection

B. cultural regulation

76. Which of the following BEST describes intimacy in friendships?
A. an emotional relationship with another person
B. self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts
C. knowledge about another person's habits, beliefs, and concerns
D. the development of a sexually oriented attraction to another person

B. self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts

77. The direct instruction approach to student learning and assessment is one of the two approaches. The other one is called the _____ approach.
A. behaviorist
B. constructivist
C. open classroom
D. ungraded approach.

B. constructivist

78. Which of the following results do advocates of state-mandated testing argue will be positive outcomes of the testing?
A. better-run schools and smarter students
B. increased student performance and more time teaching subjects tested
C. better-prepared teachers and students
D. integration of all learning styles and teaching styles

B. increased student performance and more time teaching subjects tested

79. Which of the following is NOT an argument against state-mandated tests?
A. neglect of students who are gifted
B. rote memorization
C. teaching to the test
D. unrealistically high academic standards

D. unrealistically high academic standards

80. Carol Dweck defines the cognitive view individuals develop for themselves as:
A. self-efficacy.
B. metacognition.
C. mindset.
D. mind map.

C. mindset.

81. Which of the following is an exercise Dweck and her colleagues incorporated in their effort to improve students' motivation to achieve and succeed?
A. You Can Grow Your Brain
B. Multiple Intelligence tests
C. Six Thinking Hats
D. Star Child Program

A. You Can Grow Your Brain

This theorist criticizes most theories of moral development and argues that they reflect a gender bias. This theorist proposed an alternate perspective that emphasizes connectedness with others.

Carol Gilligan

The belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes.

Self-Efficacy

A structured, teacher-centered approach that is oriented towards the goal of maximizing student learning time.

Direct Instruction Approach

85. Carol Dweck defines this as the cognitive view individuals develop for themselves.

Mindset

87. Which theorist proposed the "storm-and-stress" view that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings?
A. Anna Freud
B. Jean Piaget
C. G. Stanley Hall
D. Daniel Offer

C. G. Stanley Hall

88. The peak rate of pubertal change occurs at _____ years for girls and _____ years for boys.
A. 13; 14.5
B. 12.5; 11.5
C. 11.5 years; 13.5
D. 10.5; 13

C. 11.5 years; 13.5

89. The hormone that is associated with breast, uterine, and skeletal development in girls is:
A. progesterone.
B. estradiol.
C. luteinizing hormone.
D. gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.

B. estradiol.

90. Which of the following is true of the timing and variations in puberty?
A. Children in European countries mature up to a year earlier than their American counterparts.
B. For girls, menarche is considered within the normal range if it appears between the ages of 9 and 15.
C. Genes have little to do with when and how puberty develops.
D. Non-Latino white girls develop maturity earlier than African American girls.

B. For girls, menarche is considered within the normal range if it appears between the ages of 9 and 15.

91. Precocious puberty is usually diagnosed when the onset of puberty happens before _____ of age in girls and before _____ of age in boys.
A. 6 years; 7 years
B. 9 years; 10 years
C. 11 years; 12 years
D. 8 years; 9 years

D. 8 years; 9 years

92. Precocious puberty:
A. is usually treated by temporarily halting pubertal change through medication.
B. is usually not a condition that requires treatment.
C. is now considered a normal occurrence.
D. is usually treated by medication that stimulates gonadotropic secretions.

A. is usually treated by temporarily halting pubertal change through medication.

search has found that early-maturing girls are more likely than late-maturing girls to be:
A. satisfied with their figures in high school.
B. taller and thinner when they reach high school.
C. less popular with males their own age.
D. depressed, become alcoholic, and/or have an eating disorder.

D. depressed, become alcoholic, and/or have an eating disorder.

94. Among the changes in the brain that occur in adolescence is the thickening of the____, where fibers connect the brain's left and right hemispheres, improving adolescents' ability to process information.
A. amygdala
B. corpus callosum
C. parietal lobe
D. temporal lobe

B. corpus callosum

95. A recent national study of adolescent sexual behavior from 1991 to 2007 revealed that sexual experience and having multiple sexual partners in adolescence:
A. has steadily risen from the 1990s to the present.
B. has declined from the early 1990s to the present.
C. declined from the early 1990s through the early 2000s, and then increased recently.
D. rose steadily through the 1990s and early 2000s, and has seen a decline recently.

C. declined from the early 1990s through the early 2000s, and then increased recently.

96. Which of the following risks related to sexual activity can be reduced significantly by the use of contraceptives?
A. Sexually transmitted infections
B. Lack of emotional preparedness
C. Drug use and delinquency
D. Promiscuity

A. Sexually transmitted infections

97. In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a _______ risk of contracting gonorrhea.
A. 20 percent
B. 30 percent
C. 40 percent
D. 50 percent

D. 50 percent

98. Which of the following ethnic groups has the highest teen birth rate in the U.S.?
A. Non-Latina White
B. Asian American
C. Latina
D. African American

C. Latina

99. A recent study using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth revealed that daughters of teenage mothers were _____ to become teenage mothers themselves.
A. no more likely
B. sure
C. more likely
D. less likely

C. more likely

100. Recent research reviews found that abstinence-only programs:
A. do not reduce HIV risk behaviors.
B. prevent adolescent pregnancies better than sex-education programs emphasizing contraceptive knowledge.
C. have a marked effect in delaying the initiation of sexual intercourse.
D. are overall better at improving the sexual behaviors of adolescents than sex-education programs that emphasize contraception knowledge.

A. do not reduce HIV risk behaviors.

101. A recent national study revealed that _____ U.S. 15-year-olds met the federal government's moderate to vigorous exercise recommendations per day.
A. only about a third of
B. about half of
C. hardly any
D. a significant amount of

A. only about a third of

102. According to the National Youth Risk Survey, _____ exercised the most and _____ exercised the least among adolescents in the U.S.
A. Latino boys; Latina girls
B. African American boys; non-Latino white girls
C. Latino boys; African American girls
D. non-Latino White boys; African American girls

D. non-Latino White boys; African American girls

103. Since the 1950s, the adolescent suicide rate has:
A. stayed the same.
B. decreased.
C. doubled.
D. tripled.

D. tripled.

104. According to the study by Lloyd Johnston and his colleagues at the Institute of Social Research at the University of Michigan monitoring the drug use of America's high school seniors in a wide range of public and private high schools:
A. the U.S. now has one of the lowest rates of adolescent drug use of any industrialized nation.
B. there has been a marked increase in the use of illicit drugs over the past decade.
C. illicit drug use has been at the same level since 1990.
D. illicit drug use has declined in recent years.

D. illicit drug use has declined in recent years.

105. Cigarette smoking is likely to begin in grades ____.
A. 7 through 9
B. 10 through 12
C. 5 through 7
D. 9 through 11

A. 7 through 9

106. Nathan has recently taken to abusing prescription painkillers. What is likely to be his main source of the drug?
A. Unscrupulous pharmacists
B. Drug dealers targeting high school students
C. The medicine cabinets of their parents or of friends' parents
D. The Internet

C. The medicine cabinets of their parents or of friends' parents

107. Anorexia nervosa is about _____ to occur in females than males.
A. twice more likely
B. 10 times more likely
C. half as likely
D. three times more likely

B. 10 times more likely

108. Most people with anorexia nervosa are from:
A. middle- and upper-income families.
B. poor and working-class families.
C. Asian American and African American families.
D. families with low achievement demands.

A. middle- and upper-income families.

109. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa affect:
A. men and women equally.
B. men more than women.
C. women more than men.
D. women more than older men, but less than younger men.

C. women more than men.

110. According to Jean Piaget, around age 11, the fourth and final stage of cognitive development, the _____ stage, begins.
A. concrete operational
B. formal operational
C. postoperational
D. passive operational

B. formal operational

111. Adolescent _____ is the heightened self-consciousness of adolescents.
A. mirror complex
B. ethnocentrism
C. solipsism
D. egocentrism

D. egocentrism

112. The _____ is adolescents' belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior—attempts to be noticed, visible, and "on stage."
A. personal fable
B. stage fear
C. imaginary audience
D. collective myth

C. imaginary audience

113. Leila, 14, feels that nobody understands her, especially her parents and teachers. Leila's feelings reflect the _____ aspect of an adolescent's egocentrism.
A. personal fable
B. imaginary audience
C. self-fulfilling prophecy
D. collective myth

A. personal fable

114. Which of the following is a concern related to U.S. high school education?
A. High expectations for success
B. High standards for learning
C. Fostering of passivity in students
D. Too much variety in the pathways students can take

C. Fostering of passivity in students

115. The highest school drop-out rate in the United States occurs for:
A. Latinos.
B. Native Americans.
C. African Americans.
D. Asian Americans.

B. Native Americans.

116. Identify a strategy mentioned in the book as being emphasized in the Gates' funding to help students at risk for dropping out of school.
A. Community-based education
B. Keeping them with the same teachers through their high school years
C. Facilitating peer-learning
D. Rotating them through teachers in high school

B. Keeping them with the same teachers through their high school years

117. _____ is a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community.
A. Service learning
B. Social learning
C. Collaborative learning
D. Cooperative learning

A. Service learning

118. Service learning is often more effective when two conditions are met: (1) giving students some degree of choice in the service activities in which they participate, and (2) ____.
A. fixing certain minimum levels of compliance
B. guiding them in their tasks
C. providing students opportunities to reflect about their participation
D. limiting the amount of time spent volunteering

C. providing students opportunities to reflect about their participation

119. In 2003, this researcher suggested that adolescents have difficulty controlling their emotions, because their prefrontal cortex has not yet fully developed.

Charles Nelson

120. This theorist suggested that adolescent egocentrism is characterized by "the imaginary audience" and the "personal fable."

David Elkind

121. A period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs primarily during adolescence.

Puberty

122. An eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.

Anorexia Nervosa

123. A form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community.

Service Learning

127. Though controversial, it is indicated that self-esteem:
A. increases in adolescence.
B. remains constant in adolescence.
C. shows no gender difference in adolescents.
D. declines in adolescent girls.

D. declines in adolescent girls.

128. Results of a New Zealand longitudinal study that assessed the self-esteem of adolescents at 11, 13, and 15 years of age and adjustment and competence of the same individuals when they were 26 years old, indicated:
A. no connection between self-esteem in adolescence and competence as adults.
B. that well-adjusted, competent adults were just as likely as adults characterized by poorer mental and physical health to have low self-esteem in adolescence.
C. individuals with low self-esteem in adolescence showed no negative outcomes in adulthood.
D. that adults characterized by poorer mental and physical health were more likely to have low self-esteem in adolescence than well-adjusted, competent adults.

D. that adults characterized by poorer mental and physical health were more likely to have low self-esteem in adolescence than well-adjusted, competent adults.

129. Erikson's fifth developmental stage, which individuals experience during adolescence, is ___.
A. identity versus identity confusion
B. autonomy versus shame and doubt
C. initiative versus guilt
D. intimacy versus isolation

A. identity versus identity confusion

130. Adolescents who do not successfully resolve their identity crisis suffer from what Erikson calls ___.
A. identity diffusion
B. unresolved identity
C. identity confusion
D. identity moratorium

C. identity confusion

131. What determines an individual's identity status?
A. the choices and alternatives they have access to
B. their socioeconomic and academic profile
C. the existence or extent of their crisis or commitment
D. the existence or extent of parental and social support

C. the existence or extent of their crisis or commitment

132. _____ reflects an individual's personal investment in identity development.
A. Commitment
B. Collaboration
C. Calling
D. Conscientiousness

A. Commitment

133. Identify the status of individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments.
A. Identity crisis
B. Identity diffusion
C. Identity foreclosure
D. Identity achievement

B. Identity diffusion

134. Identity _____ is James Marcia's term for the status of adolescents who are in the midst of a crisis, and whose commitment levels are either absent or only vaguely defined.
A. confusion
B. stagnation
C. diffusion
D. moratorium

D. moratorium

135. Identity _____ is the status of individuals who have undergone a crisis and made a commitment.
A. diffusion
B. foreclosure
C. moratorium
D. achievement

D. achievement

136. _____ is the enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feelings related to that membership.
A. Ethnic gloss
B. Ethnic awareness
C. Ethnic identity
D. Ethnic pride

C. Ethnic identity

137. Second-generation immigrants are more likely to think of themselves as "American," possibly because:
A. their parents gave up ethnic control.
B. citizenship is granted at birth.
C. they usually speak English
D. they disassociate themselves with their ethnic background.

B. citizenship is granted at birth.

138. Which of the following statements about religion and adolescents has research shown to be true?
A. There has been a resurgence in religious interest among adolescents.
B. Religious issues are not important to most adolescents.
C. Generally, 18-year olds are more religious than 14-year olds in the U.S.
D. Adolescent girls are more religious than are adolescent boys

D. Adolescent girls are more religious than are adolescent boys

139. Many of the cognitive changes thought to influence religious development—such as adolescents' increased ability to think more abstractly, idealistically, and logically—involve:
A. Piaget's cognitive developmental theory.
B. Erikson's psychosocial theory.
C. Freud's psychoanalytic theory.
D. Lorenz's ethological theory.

A. Piaget's cognitive developmental theory.

140. Joseph Allen and his colleagues found that adolescents who were securely attached to their parents at 14 years of age were more likely at 21 years of age to report:
A. feeling uncomfortable in other intimate relationships.
B. continuing financial dependence on their parents.
C. that they were in an exclusive relationship.
D. a conflicted relationship with their parents.

C. that they were in an exclusive relationship.

141. As opposed to the trend in young children, teenagers typically prefer to have:
A. a large group of friends, some of whom are especially intimate.
B. several friends, but only one "best" friend.
C. very few intense and intimate friendships.
D. a smaller number of friendships that are more intense and intimate.

D. a smaller number of friendships that are more intense and intimate.

142. Harry Stack Sullivan believes most adolescent friendships are built on a need for ___.
A. respect
B. compatibility
C. intimacy
D. similarity

C. intimacy

143. At which grade level does conformity to peers peak?
A. Sixth and seventh grades
B. Eighth and ninth grades
C. Tenth and eleventh grades
D. Twelfth grade

B. Eighth and ninth grades

144. At about which stage do cliques become more heterosexual and include members from both sexes?
A. In adulthood
B. In elementary school
C. In middle school
D. In high school

D. In high school

145. Crowds are different from cliques in that:
A. they are not defined by the activities that members engage in.
B. they become more prominent in late adolescence.
C. they are larger and less personal.
D. the members have nothing in common.

C. they are larger and less personal.

146. Adolescents enter into romantic attractions and affiliations at about _____ years of age, where dating, if any, occur in a group setting.
A. 8 to 9
B. 11 to 13
C. 14 to 16
D. 17 to 19

B. 11 to 13

147. Early bloomers include:
A. 15 to 20 percent of 14 to 16 year olds who say that they currently are in a romantic relationship.
B. 10 percent of 17 to 19 year olds who say that they have had no experience with romantic relationships.
C. 15 to 20 percent of 11 to 13 year olds who say that they currently are in a romantic relationship.
D. 15 percent of 17 to 19 year olds who report that they have not engaged in any romantic relationships that lasted more than 4 months.

C. 15 to 20 percent of 11 to 13 year olds who say that they currently are in a romantic relationship.

148. Late bloomers comprise approximately 10 percent of _____ who say that they have had no experience with romantic relationships.
A. 14 to 16 year olds
B. 17 to 19 year olds
C. 12 to 13 year olds
D. 15 to 16 year olds

B. 17 to 19 year olds

149. Research linking dating and romantic relationships with various measures of adolescent adjustment indicates that:
A. the number of romantic experiences reported had no link with levels of social acceptance experienced by adolescents.
B. having more romantic experience was linked to a higher level of substance use and delinquency.
C. together, co-rumination and romantic involvement predicted a decrease in depressive symptoms.
D. having no experience of romantic relationships is a consistent predictor of depression and deviant behavior.

B. having more romantic experience was linked to a higher level of substance use and delinquency.

150. The amount of daily discretionary time that American adolescents have is _____ what adolescents have in East Asia.
A. significantly less than
B. significantly more than
C. equal to
D. declining compared with

B. significantly more than

151. What distinguishes the locations where rites of passage are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa?
A. Marked distinctions in status of age groups
B. Resistance to Western culture
C. Rigid social structure
D. Low access to formal education

D. Low access to formal education

152. Television viewing and video-game playing often peak in:
A. early childhood.
B. early adolescence.
C. late adolescence.
D. mid-childhood.

B. early adolescence.

153. The number of juvenile court delinquency caseloads in the United States:
A. has increased dramatically since 1996.
B. has increased slightly since 1960.
C. has decreased dramatically since 1996.
D. has decreased slightly since 1996.

D. has decreased slightly since 1996.

154. Early-onset antisocial behavior is defined as antisocial behavior before the age of ___.
A. 13
B. 9
C. 15
D. 11

D. 11

155. Why do females have higher rates of depression than do males?
A. Females have more negative self-images than do males.
B. Society discourages females from talking about their problems.
C. Females have lower amounts of serotonin in their brain than do males.
D. They do not; they just seek help more frequently than do males.

A. Females have more negative self-images than do males.

156. The best way to treat adolescent depression is:
A. through antidepressant medication like Prozac.
B. not with medication, but through cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
C. a combination of antidepressant medication and psychoanalysis, without medication.
D. a combination of antidepressant medication and CBT.

D. a combination of antidepressant medication and CBT.

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