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ID's for Unit 2 test

Ch. 12 ID's

The Age of Religous Wars

Cardinal Richelieu

This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy.

Catherine de Medicis

Ruled as Queen of France for after Francis II and fought to reconcile French and Protestant relations. Because of her fear of the Guises, she fought to maintain the monarchy. However she was forced to cooperate with the Guises. Balanced the two religious sides.

Coligny

Huguenot leader who was a good military strategist. He urged the king to help defend the Netherlands. Which would have made Spain angry. He was assassinated at the St. Bartholomew's day massacre

Defenestration of Prague

(1618) The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.

Edict of Nantes

1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.

Elizabeth I

Queen of England from 1558 to 1603

Gustavus Adolphus

(1594-1632) Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles.

Habsburg

A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain. (p. 449)

Henry of Navarre

a French Protestant military leader; became king of France; passed Edict of Nantes and then adopted Catholicism, the predominant French religion, saying "Paris is worth a mass."

Huguenots

French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots

Catholics wanted to replace Elizabeth with Mary, but Elizabeth executed Mary in 1582

Mary Tudor, Bloody Mary

Took the English throne in 1553. She was the oldest daughter of Henry VIII, part of the Tudor family, and a devoted Catholic. Married to Philip II of Spain. Helped lead Counter-Reformation against Protestantism. Her goal was to return Britain to the Catholic Church. Nicknamed Bloody Mary because of the 300 Protestants she killed during her reign. Died with no heirs to the throne.

Pacification of Ghent

1576; all provinces in the Netherlands would stand together under William of Orange's leadership, respect religious differences, and demand the removal of Spanish troops

Peace of Westphalia

Peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years' War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security

Philip II

son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)

Spanish Armada

the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.

Spanish Fury

During the occupation of the Low Countries by Phillip II's forces, the Spanish army mutinied after not having received pay. During the subsequent rampage, these Spanish troops pillaged and murdered over six thousand people in Antwerp.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.

Thirty Years' War

(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.

Ch. 13 ID's

European State Consolidation

absolutism

a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Act of Settlement

provided that the English crown would go to the German Hanovers if none of Queen Anne's children survived.

Anne of Austria

She is wife on the dead king Louis XIII. She becomes regent over her son and successor of Louis XIII, Louis XIV. But she allowed Cardinal Mazarin, Richelieu's trained successor, to dominate the government.

Cavaliers

In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.

Charles I

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649

Charles II

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism

Colbert

a finance minister under Louis XIV that applied mercantilism to France to help increase revenue.

constitutionalism

basic principle that government and those who govern must obey the law; the rule of law

corvee

forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects

Declaration of Indulgence

This was successfully passes under James II ending the Test Act and allowed the English to worship freely

divine right of kings

the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God

English Civil War

Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king

Glorious Revolution

In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.

Grand Alliance

An alliance between the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians against the expansionist wars of Louis XIV.

Henry IV of France

Orginally Henry of Navarre. He was a Politique . He became a Catholic because he knew most of France was Catholic. He gave the Huguenots religious liberty. His rule paved the way for French absolutism and helped restore internal peace in France.

intendents

royal officials who collected taxes, recruited soldiers, and carried out his policies in the provinces

Jacques-Benigne Bossuet

Catholic priest who was a strong advocator for Divine right of kings. Meaning that a king was chosen by God to rule. Disobey, and then disobey. Only had God to obey.

James II

This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government

James VI of Scotland/ James I of England

Son of Mary Stuart (aka Mary,Queen of Scots). King of Scotland for 35 yrs before K of England in 1603. Descendant of H VII. Believed in absolutism, well educated, and politically shrewd. But not good at majesty and mystiques of monarchy as E I had been. Lacked common touch. Disliked as foreigner by English who resented his accent, frivolous behaviour, male lovers(Duke of Buckingham), spendthrift practices, etc. Bored parliament with lectures on absolutism and belief in divine right.

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

L'etat, c'est moi

"I am the State" Louis XIV

League of Augsburg

defensive pact b/w England, Spain, Sweden, United Providences, and Habsburgs to prevent Louis XIV from expansion and domination

Long Parliament

(1640-1648) desperate for money after Scottish invasion of northern England-Charles finally agreed to demands by Parliament: Parliament could not be dissolved w/o its own consent; had to meet a min. of once every 3 years; ship money abolished; leaders of persecution of Puritans to be tried and executed; Star Chamber abolished; common law courts supreme to king's courts; refused funds to raise army to defeat Irish revolt-Puritans came to represent majority in Parliament

Louis XIII

French king who succeeded Henry IV when he was nine years old; his reign was dominated by the influence by his mother and regent Marie de Medici, Cardinal Richelieu, and wealthy nobles.

Louis XIV

king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)

Marie Theresa

Hapsburg leader that ruled as an absolute monarch. She failed recapture Silesia from Frederick the Great, but exanded her kingdom and made it more powerful.

mercantilism

an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

Nine Years' War

1688 - 1697 (War of the League of Augsburg) Result of Louis XIV trying to extend French territory to the Rhine

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

"one king, one law, one faith"

This was the slogan during Louis XIV's reign; L14 believed in being the absolute ruler and controlling everything, like France's religion.

Parlement of Paris

The main court of law in France, which competed with members of the court for influence over the king. Members were known as "nobility of the robe," while the hereditary, military-oriented courtiers were "nobility of the sword".

Peace of Nijmwegen

This ended the hostilities of the war b/w France and the HRE, Netherlands, Spain, Brandenburg, and Lorraine; the United Netherlands retained all of its territory in the terms of this peace

Peace of Ryswick

the secured the borders of Holland and ended Louis XIV's expansion into Germany

Puritan Republic

Puritans were in charge of the House of Commons, a "republic" institution of England. Led by Oliver Cromwell

raison d'etat

"Reason of State". This doctrine was advocated by Richelieu of France, and said that the central government was a higher priority than any important group in the country. Following this idea, he made an effort to control the nobility and local officials, while he took away the "special priviledges" previously enjoyed by Huguenots as a result of the Edict of Nantes. Also, this basically stated that God was okay with the government doing ANYTHING as long as it would benefit the state in the long run.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

part of Louis XIV's efforts to have France have only one religion, he closed huguenots churches and schools, banned all their public activities, and exiled those who refused to embrace the state religion

Roundheads

Puritan supporters of Parliament, fighting the English Civil War from 1642-1649

Rump Parliament

The Cromwell-controlled Parliament that proclaimed England a republic and abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy.

Short Parliament

(1640) Scottish military revolt in 1640 occurred when Charles attempted to impose the English Prayer Book on Scottish Presbyterian Church-needed new taxes-Parliament reconvened-refusal of Petition of Right-disbanded after a month

Sully

French statesman (1560-1641)

Test Act

Parliament passed this in response to Charles II's declaration of indulgences; required all military members to swear an oath against transubstantiation.

The Restoration

Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government.

Thomas Hobbes

English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)

Toleration Act of 1689

The Toleration Act of 1689 extended a degree of freedom of worship to all Christians except Catholics and Unitarians, although dissenters from the established church still had few political rights.

Treaty of Aiz-la-Chapelle

all property was given back, but Prussia refused to give back Silesia.

Treaty of Dover

In 1670, England and France kings (Charles II and Louis XIV) hada secret meeting and allied against the Dutch, as long as Charles promised to announce his conversion to Catholicism to England.

Treaty of Rastadt

Treaty that confirmed Philip V as king of Spain. Gave Gibraltar to England, making it a Mediterranean power. Won Louis's recognition of the right of the House of Hanover to accede to the English throne.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire

Versailles

Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.

William and Mary

King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.

War of the Spanish Succession

a conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France.

Boyars

Russian nobles

Brandenburg-Prussia

Group of German territories, ruled by the Hohenzollern family, that became one of Europe's most powerful states in the seventeenth century. Its military strength was supported by its hereditary landowners who were granted autonomy in their territories.

Cardinal Fleury

chief minister, tried to solve France's financial problems but didn't because France entered the War of Austrian Succesion

Catherine the Great (II)

ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations.

Charles VI of Austria

In 1713, Charles VI (r. 1711-1740) proclaimed the Pragmatic Sanction, which stated that the Habsburg possessions were never to divide and were always to be passed intact to a single heir. Charles was the last of all of the Habsburg males. Charles spent much of his reign trying to get this principle accepted by the various branches of the Habsburg family, by the three different Estates of the realm, and by the states of Europe. (571)

Dutch East India Company

Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.

Elector

any of the German princes who were entitled to vote in the election of new emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

Frederick I

son of Frederick William who in 1701 became the first king of Prussia (1657-1713)

Frederick II (the Great)

This man was the ruler of Prussia in the War of Austrian Succession and Seven Years' War. He was very militaristic and a genius in battle, but did reform laws and grant religious toleration.

Frederick William (the Great Elector)

This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.

Frederick William I (King of Prussia)

the son and successor of Frederick I who disliked French ways and got rid of most of its luxury and used the saved money to strengthen Prussia by doubling the size of its army and makign it the most efficient fighting force in Europe. He also created an efficient government bureaucracy and encouraged trade and the development of new industries. He required that all parents send their children to school.

George I of Hanover

A German prince from Hanover who became King of England thanks to the Act of Settlement.

Great Northern War

Russia vs. Sweden. Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies. Treaty of Nystad is where Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its Window on the West in the Baltic Sea

Hohenzollerns

the house that ruled Prussia, they gradually won control over the Brandenburg through mariages, giving them control of German principalities in central and western Germany.

Ivan III (the Great)

Prince of the duchy of Moscow; responsible for freeing Russia from the Mongols; took the title of tsar.

Ivan the Terrible

first czar of Russia, known for cruelty and being constantly at war

Ivan V

Feodor II's second son; co-ruled with Peter I (the Great) from 1682 until his death in 1696; was a "pushover"

John Sobieski

One of few Polish kings of Poland who had contributed greatly to relief of Vienna under siege by the Turks in 1683.

Junkers

Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.

liberum veto

voting in Polish parliament had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom

Louis XIV

king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)

Louis XV

grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1710-1774)

Magyars

Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary

Maria Theresa

This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs

Michael Romanov

The new "Tsar" of Russia after Ivan, he ended the Time of Troubles

Ottoman Empire

Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.

Parlements

15 sovereign courts in the french judicial system that checked the king's ability to tax and legislate arbitrarily

Peter III

made peace with Prussia, probably saving it from defeat in the Seven Years' War, succeeded Elizabeth to become Emperor

Peter the Great

(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. (p. 552)

Pragmatic Sanction

an imperial decree that becomes part of the fundamental law of the land

Prussian Army

high discipline, status, most important part of Prussia in the mid 17th century

Queen Anne

last of stuarts- inherited throne from William and Mary because they could not produce heir.

Robert Walpole

Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745)

Romanovs

Russian dynasty, started with Michael Romanov after the Time of Troubles and lasted until 1917.

Siege of Vienna

(1683) Ottoman Empire attemped to invade Vienna but they were stopped by Leopold I

stadtholder

Dutch hereditary chief excecutive; A hereditary chief executor over provinces in Holland. Ex: William III of Orange (1650-1702)

Table of Ranks

Peter the Great instituted it to create opportunities for non-nobles to serve the state and join the nobility. There were 14 levels. Each official was required to begin at level one and work his way up. When a non-noble reached the eighth rank, he became a noble.

Tories

Another name for Loyalists

Whigs

This political party favored Parliament over the crown

William III of Orange

He was the governor (stradtholder) of Holland. He with his wife Mary, the protestant daughter of James were invited ' for the protestant faith and free parliament'. In 1688 the glorious revolution was bloodless.James II fled to France to the court of Louis XIV. and William led his army against the Catholic 'jacobites' of Ireland.

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