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What are the causes of earthquakes?

Tectonic plates of the lithosphere separate, collide, or slide past each other causing rock to bend and break causing quakes.

What are the effects of earthquakes?

P-waves come from the focus at the same time and move perpendicular slowing them down. Both cause the earth to shake.

What are some of the risks that people take when their homes are located in areas with loose soil or when their houses are not earthquake-resistant?

Risk that the house could fall apart, or the soil turns to liquid through liquefaction when the earth shakes causing land-slides, mud slides, and avalanches.

Where is the Ring of Fire located on a map?

It is located around the Pacific Plate including the Pacific Ocean, and is the location of many volcanoes and earthquakes.

How do mountains form?

From the plates of the earth as they collide, slide past each other, and from one plate as it slides under another. They are also formed from volcanoes that move magma from the mantle to the lithosphere / outer crust.

What is happening to the earth plates at the following locations: a. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Plates are separating and forming new ocean floor.

b. The Himalayan Mountains

The Indian-Australian Plate is colliding with the Eurasian Plate and pushing the crust up.

c. The Japan Trench

Subduction is when a dense oceanic plate slides under a continental plate and causes a trench or deep valley in the ocean floor. Sometimes volcanoes form here.

What is happening to the plates along the San Andreas Fault? (Tell which direction they are moving in.)

The Pacific Plate is moving north and the American Plate is stationary or slightly moving south.

What is happening to the path of Wallace Creek?

Wallace Creek has turned and is flowing along the SA fault.

Why do earthquakes occur along a fault, like the San Andreas Fault?

The Fault has been formed through millions of years as the two plates move against each other and bend the rocks from pressure of movement.

Why do you think there are so many ridges and cracks along the San Andreas Fault?

The ridges and cracks form as the rocks bend from the pressure of the plates moving.

What layers are included in the lithosphere?

The crust and upper layer of the mantle.

How do scientists know the inside of the earth is made of layers?

The measurements of the seismic waves have proven that each later is more dense than the one before as they move down into the earth. P-waves pass through the lithosphere, mantle, and outer core. S-waves only pass through the lithosphere and the mantle.

What evidence do scientists have to support the idea that the continents were once one large landmass?

1. Land mass puzzle pieces.
2. Fossil evidence.
3. Rocks of the same age and type / mountain ranges.

What caused the large landmass to separate?

Continental Rifting through the movement of tectonic plates.
Divergent Plates separated and caused new ocean floor to form.
Convergent Plates collided and formed mountains.

How do each of the following earthquake waves move (side to side or push / pull) and where does each one travel (through the body of the earth or along its surface)?
a. P-wave

push / pull through the earth.

b. S-wave

side to side / through the earth and on surface.

c. Surface wave

On the surface of the crust

What is the difference between the longitude and latitude.

Latitude lines are horizontal and labeled from the poles north and south of the equator. Longitude lines are vertical and labeled from east to west.

What are the three ways in which the earth's plates move?

Convergent plates move toward each other colliding and creating mountains or moving over and under each other creating trenches.
Divergent plates move away from each other creating new ocean floor, trenches, and volcanoes.
Transform plates move beside each other forming mountains, faults, and bending rocks, building pressure until the rocks break and cause an earthquake.

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